Demonstrations By UCB Index

Mechanics (A)


Acceleration (A+0)


  A+0+0"Coin and Feather" fall in an evacuated rotatable tube.
  A+0+5 Timed free fall: Ball drops 2 meters through electronic timing gate.
  A+0+10 Atwood machine: Unbalanced weights on a pulley accelerate slowly.
  A+0+15 A falling weight accelerates a car horizontally.
  A+0+20 Acceleration of a steel ball down an inclined plane with metronome.
  A+0+22 Inclined airtrack with gliders and timing gates.
  A+0+23 Inclined airtrack: Cart and ball accelerate in unison.
  A+0+25 Cork float accelerometer: Cork and water in sealed flask.
  A+0+30 A chain dropped onto a force plate.
  A+0+31 Swinging mass M lifts mass 2M
  A+0+35 A ball swung on a string held by a sleeve.
  A+0+40 Conical pendulum: Similar to A+0+35 with standard weights.
  A+0+45 Loop the loop: Sphere, hoop, disk rolled down a looped track.
  A+0+47 Swing water in a bucket.
  A+0+50 Candles rotating about an axis.
  A+0+55 Mercury and colored water in a rotating glass vessel.
  A+0+56 Flattening of the earth: Rotating brass hoops.
  A+0+57 Rotating loop of chain rolls across bench.
  A+0+58 Mechanical governor device.
  A+0+59 Chain lariat with hand drill or electric rotator.
  A+0+60 Film: "Zero G", sound, 14 min.
  A+0+65 Film: "Conservation laws in zero G", sound, 14 min.
  A+0+70 Film loop: "Inertial forces: Centripetal acceleration", 3:15 min.
  A+0+75 Film loop: "Inertial forces:Translational acceleration", 2:05 min.
  A+0+80 Java Applet: The Ramp
  A+0+81 Java Applet "Moving ladybug shows vectors of motion"
  A+0+82 Java Applet "Ladybug on Carousel shows vectors of motion"
  A+0+83 Java Applet "Moving dot shows vectors of velocity and acceleration"
  A+0+84 Java Applet "The Moving Man"
  A+0+85 Java Applet "Moving car with graphed position to show linear sinusoidal motion"
  A+0+86 Film Loop: "Worlds largest vacuumn chamber does coin and feather, 4:41 min"

Conservation of Energy (A+5)


  A+5+0 Ball on string mounts on blackboard and pivots on lower rod.
  A+5+5 The Trebuchet
  A+5+10 Equal path lengths ball race.
  A+5+15 Brachistochrone: Three balls falling along different trajectories.
  A+5+20 Bowling ball pendulum swings back to nose.
  A+5+25 Film loop: "Conservation of energy: Pole vault", 3:55 min.
  A+5+26 Java applet: Conservation of energy skate park, movable tracks
  A+5+27 Java Applet: Conservation of energy skate park, various graphical representations
  A+5+28 Java Applet: Racing balls along different tracks
  A+5+29 Java Applet: "Mass-spring oscillator with optional energy graphs"

Frames of Reference (A+10)


  A+10+0 Film: "Frames of reference", sound, 28 min.
  A+10+5Projectile Launched Over Moving Reference Frame
  A+10+40 Film loop: "Galilean relativity I", ball dropped from mast of ship,2:55min.
  A+10+45 Film loop:"Galilean relativity II", object dropped from aircraft, 3:40 min.
  A+10+50 Film loop: "Galilean relativity III", projectile fired vertically, 3:00 min.
  A+10+55 Film loop: "A matter of relative motion", 3:40 min.
  A+10+60 Film: "Slinky Drop at Turkey Creek" 3:14 min

Friction (A+12)


  A+12+0 Blocks, with various surfaces slide on an inclined plane.
  A+12+1 Film: "A million to one", flea and dry ice puck, sound, 5 min.
  A+12+5 Weighted wood block dragged horizontally by force sensor.
  A+12+10 Plank oscillates on oppositely rotating bicycle wheels.
  A+12+11 Java Applet "Forces and Motion on Horizontal Plane"
  A+12+12 Java Applet "Forces and Motion on Inclined Ramp"
  A+12+13 Java Applet "Molecular model of Friction"
  A+12+14 Java Applet "Inclined plane with adjustable friction and vectors shown"

Forces (A+14)


  A+14+0 Weight on a vertical spring with markers on stand.
  A+14+1 Block pulled horizontally by a spring.
  A+14+5 Force table: Forces on a car on a horizontal table.
  A+14+10 Force table: Forces on a car on an adjustable inclined plane.
  A+14+15 Precision lever: Balance beam on stand plus weight set.
  A+14+16 A meterstick lever on a free-standing fulcrum with weights.
  A+14+17 Standard pan balance with assorted weights.
  A+14+20Equivalence of tension of spring attached to pole with mass vs mass at both ends.
  A+14+25 Applet: Forces and Motion: Basics - Force, Motion, Friction
  A+14+26 Applet: Forces Exerted on Bridges
  A+14+30 Fan and Sailboat on wheels

Gravitation (A+15)


  A+15+0 The Cavendish experiment: Model and actual apparatus to show.
  A+15+1 Film loop: "The Cavendish experiment", 4:25 min.
  A+15+10 Java Applet Orbiting Bodies
  A+15+30 Film: "The law of gravitation "(Feynman), sound, 56 min.
  A+15+35 Applet: Gravity and Orbits
  A+15+40 Applet: Gravity Force Lab
  A+15+45 Applet: My Solar System
  A+15+50 Drawing Ellipse on Chalkboard

Linear Inertia (A+20)


  A+20+0 Card snapped from under a weight by a leaf spring.
  A+20+5 Tablecloth yanked out from under dishes.
  A+20+10 Breaking thread above and below weight.
  A+20+20 Bed of nails

Rotational Inertia (A+25)


  A+25+0 Two disks, one weighted in center and other on rim, roll down ramp.
  A+25+5 Moment of inertia: Hoop or disk rotated by falling weight.
  A+25+10 Loop the loop: Sphere, hoop, disk rolled down a looped track.
  A+25+15 Rotational Inertia Wands
  A+25+20 Applet: Downhill Racing

Angular Momentum (A+30)


  A+30+0 Minor's apparatus: Movable discs rotated by falling weight.
  A+30+5 Maxwell's wheel: Flywheel with axle, supported on strings or stand.
  A+30+10 Rotational inertia device: Sliding weights on rotating rod.
  A+30+15 Rotating chair with dumbbells or weighted bicycle wheel.
  A+30+20 Maxwell's top, has adjustable center of gravity.
  A+30+25 Large conical aluminum top.
  A+30+30 Gyroscopes; various.
  A+30+35 Sire's Polytrope.
  A+30+40 Film: "Conservation laws in zero G", sound, 14 min..
  A+30+45 Large gyroscope in a suitcase.
  A+30+50 Rotating Platform for Outreach
  A+30+55 Falling Coffee Cup is Arrested by Friction
  A+30+60 Spinning Bicycle Wheel Stays Upright.

Linear Momentum (A+35)


  A+35+0 Balls of equal and unequal mass on strings, separated by a leaf spring.
  A+35+2 Two people in rolling chairs pushing and pulling
  A+35+5 Elastic collisions: Seven steel balls roll on a wooden track.
  A+35+10 Elastic collisions: Five hanging balls and two unequal hanging balls.
  A+35+16 .22 rifle fires vertically, bullet lifts small wood cylinder.
  A+35+17 Ballistic pendulum: Suspended .22 rifle fires into suspended block.
  A+35+18 Inelastic collisions: Another ballistic pendulum.
  A+35+20 Three meter airtrack with gliders that rebound elastically, or stick.
  A+35+25 Plastic pucks on air table.
  A+35+28 Executive size pool table
  A+35+30 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.
  A+35+35 Airtrack: Long track with two gliders coupled by a spring hoop.
  A+35+40 Train on circular track moves one way and track moves the other.
  A+35+45 Film loop: "Colliding freight cars", 2:45 min.
  A+35+50 Film loop: "Dynamics of a billiard ball", 4:00 min.
  A+35+55 Applet: Collision Lab

Motion in One Dimension (A+37)


  A+37+5 Airtrack: Glider passes "start" and "stop" gates on digital timer.
  A+37+10 Electric winch tows car at constant speed.
  A+37+11 Electric winch tows car at constant speed, then constant acceleration.

Physical Measurements (A+45)


  A+45+0 3"x 4" slides of standards and units and cassette tape of WWV.
  A+45+10 Film: "Powers of ten", sound, 10 min.
  A+45+15 Solids to show; cone, pyramid, icosahedron, etc.
  A+45+20 Wall chart of metric system.

Projectiles (A+50)


  A+50+0 Dropped and shot balls hit bench simultaneously.
  A+50+5 Water projector: Adjustable angle water jet in front of grid.
  A+50+10 Monkey and the hunter.
  A+50+15 Reaction jet: "L" tube rotates as water flows through it.
  A+50+20 Rocket is filled with water and compressed air and launched vertically.
  A+50+25 Carbon dioxide propelled rocket flies across room on wire.
  A+50+26 Carbon dioxide propelled rotational device.
  A+50+27 Rocket using a CO2 Fire Extinguisher: Newton's 3rd Law.
  A+50+35 Ballistics car: Ball ejected from rolling car drops back in.

Rotational Dynamics (A+55)


  A+55+0 "Sweet Spot": Meterstick pivot point changes with point struck.
  A+55+5 Rolling spool: String on spool is pulled at various angles.
  A+55+10 Cycloid disk draws path on chalkboard.

Statics and Mechanical Equilibrium (A+60)


  A+60+0 Meterstick suspended in mid-air by horizontal strings and weights.
  A+60+5 Force on hinged beam measured with transducer.
  A+60+10 Forces on crane boom measured with transducer.
  A+60+15 Two transducers measure forces from centered hanging mass.
  A+60+16 Same as A+60+15, but mass in different position.
  A+60+20 Car hangs balanced by forces in mid-air over removable inclined plane.
  A+60+25 Disk (weighted off-center) rolls up inclined plane.
  A+60+30 Irregular shapes to determine center of mass using plumb bob.
  A+60+32 Center of gravity (toy) objects.
  A+60+35 Static equilibrium for a rope on a spool. Same as A+55+5.
  A+60+37 Rotation about the center of mass: Object to throw.
  A+60+40 Anatomical models: Skull, Arm, Leg
  A+60+45 Center of mass of a baseball bat
  A+60+50 Applet: Motion of the Center of Mass
  A+60+55 Stacking Blocks Extend Over Base

Torque (A+65)


  A+65+0 Twisting a rod with one end fixed and the other hung with weights.
  A+65+10 Torque wrench to demonstrate.
  A+65+15 Applet: Balancing Act
  A+65+20Various Levers Set Out for Display

Vectors (A+70)


  A+70+0 X,Y,Z-coordinate system with vector arrows.
  A+70+5 Vector arrows of various sizes and colors fit in wooden bases.
  A+70+10 Relative velocity: Three electric cars on tracks make chalk line.
  A+70+20 Rope with slug(unit of mass) in center is lifted from ends.
  A+70+25 Film loop: "Vector addition: Velocity of a boat", 3:35 min.
  A+70+30 Applet: Ship Traveling in a Current

Mechanical Advantage (A+80)


  A+80+10 Pulley sets.
  A+80+20 Chain hoist.
  A+80+30 Block and tackle.
  A+80+40 Block and tackle: Bosun's chair.

Waves (B)


Chaotic Oscillations (B+5)


  B+5+0 Chaotic pendulum.
  B+5+5 Applet: Chaotic Pendulum

Simple Harmonic Motion (B+10)


  B+10+0 Mass on a spring.
  B+10+1 Simple pendulum: Ball on a string.
  B+10+2 Torsion pendulum with removable weights.
  B+10+3 Compound pendulum: Meterstick with movable brass weight.
  B+10+5 Large torsion pendulum with different diameter rods.
  B+10+10 Physical pendulum: Steel bar with two pivot points.
  B+10+15 Ball rolling in a spherical dish on OHP.
  B+10+20 Large damped oscillator (mass on spring) with various damping disks.
  B+10+25 Clock spring oscillator: Electrically driven and damped.
  B+10+30 Damped oscillations: Flat steel spring with removable weights.
  B+10+35 Lissajous figures with laser and two signal generators.
  B+10+37 Lissajous Figures created with a two tuning forks with mirrors
  B+10+40 Transparencies: Lissajous figures for OHP.
  B+10+45 Java Applet: Simple Harmonic Motion & Uniform Circular Motion
  B+10+50 Ball on turntable rotates beneath synchronized pendulum .
  B+10+55 Java Applet: A-vector and V-vector arrows
  B+10+60 Tuning forks, various.
  B+10+65 Pocket watch with mirror and laser twitches with balance wheel motion.
  B+10+70 Four pendulums on rod: Same mass, different lengths.
  B+10+72 Four pendulums on rod: Same length, different masses.
  B+10+75 Inverted pendulum.
  B+10+80 Twelve pendulums: same mass, different lengths
  B+10+85 Applet: Masses and Springs
  B+10+86 Applet: Pendulum Lab
  B+10+87 Applet: Simple Harmonic Motion with and without Damping
  B+10+88 Applet: Lissajous Figures

Coupled Harmonic Oscillators (B+15)


  B+15+0 Two large pendulums coupled with spring.
  B+15+1 Three large pendulums coupled with two springs.
  B+15+5 Wilberforce pendulum: Oscillates between rotation and up-down.
  B+15+10 Two pendulums on a frame of flexible steel.
  B+15+15 Two balls hung on the same string, one in middle, one at the end.
  B+15+20 5 metronomes on board and cans synch their oscillations
  B+15+25 Applet: Normal Modes
  B+15+26 Coupled Oscillations Simulation

Forced Oscillations/Resonance (B+20)


  B+20+0 Driven harmonic oscillator: Motor driven mass on spring.
  B+20+5 Clock spring oscillator: Electrically driven and damped.
  B+20+10 Damped oscillations in a resonant LCR circuit on an oscilloscope.
  B+20+15 One tuning fork with tuned cavity, drives another.
  B+20+20 Film : "Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse",silent, 4 min.
  B+20+25 Set of three coupled inverted pendulums on wood base.
  B+20+30 Beaker is broken by sound from speaker.
  B+20+35 Driven oscillations in a multiple spring-mass system.
  B+20+40 Video: Slow Motion of Shattering Wine Glass
  B+20+41 Video: Shattering Wine Glass : 0:42 min

Travelling Waves (B+25)


  B+25+0 Transverse wave model, hand-cranked.
  B+25+1 Transverse 3-dimensional wave model, hand-cranked.
  B+25+5 Longitudinal wave model, hand-cranked.
  B+25+10 Rubber rope stretched across front of room.
  B+25+15 Brass spring on white plastic sheet.
  B+25+20 Suspended slinky on threads for compression wave.
  B+25+25 Mechanical water wave model, hand-cranked.
  B+25+30 Torsional wave device, large or small.
  B+25+35 Applet: Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion
  B+25+36 Applet: Longitudinal Waves
  B+25+37 Applet: Dispersion Applets

Superposition : Fourier Principles/Complex Waves (B+30)


  B+30+0 Fourier synthesis.
  B+30+1 Transparencies: Fourier superpositions.
  B+30+5 Fourier decomposition: microphone and oscilloscope.
  B+30+10 Applet: Fourier Synthesis
  B+30+11 Applet: superposition

Interference (B+35)


  B+35+0 Large wood model of a double slit with hinged waves.
  B+35+5 Acoustic interference with Quincke (trombone) tube and sonalert.
  B+35+10 Interference of sound waves from two speakers, same generator.
  B+35+12 Interference between two ultrasound sources (40 kHz).
  B+35+15 Interference in a ripple tank uses arc lamp or incandescent light.
  B+35+20 Beats with tuning forks on tuned cavities.
  B+35+25 Beats with two beer bottles blown manually.
  B+35+30 Beats from two speakers observed on an oscilloscope.
  B+35+35 Appet: Ripple Tank Simulation
  B+35+40 Applet: Pinicple of Superposition (1)
  B+35+45 Applet: Principle of Superposition (2)
  B+35+50 Applet: Traveling Waves and Superposition -- Exercise Set 2
  B+35+55 Applet: Stationary wave
  B+35+60 Applet: Superposition of waves
  B+35+65 Applet: Wave workshop
  B+35+70 Applet: 2-D Wave Simulation
  B+35+75 Applet: 3-D Wave Simulation
  B+35+80 Applet: Sound Wave Interference

Sound Spectrum/Sources (B+45)


  B+45+0 Steel spring pendulum, inverted, vibrates at 10 Hz.
  B+45+5 Giant tuning fork, barely audible, displayed with stroboscope.
  B+45+10 Ultrasound transducers (40 kHz) as both sources and receivers.
  B+45+15 Bell ringing in a jar evacuated with pump.
  B+45+20 Savart's wheel: Toothed wheel and cardboard or air jet.
  B+45+25 Siren: large, electric motor driven.
  B+45+30 Compressed air jet blows through spinning disk with holes.
  B+45+32 Twirling Tube
  B+45+35 Sprockets on shaft rotate against a card to make sound.
  B+45+40 Caruga horn: Varigated tube to blow through
  B+45+42 Hoot Tube
  B+45+45 Galton's whistle: Compressed air whistle.
  B+45+50 Helmholtz resonators drive radiometer vanes, using tuning forks.
  B+45+51 Helmholtz Resonators with tuning forks and a candle
  B+45+55 Casio electronic synthesizer with amp and speaker.
  B+45+60 Applet: Vibrational Behavior of an Empty Beer Bottle
  B+45+65 Applet: Vibrational Modes of a Tuning Fork

Standing Waves/Resonance (B+50)


  B+50+0 Applet: Group Velocity Demonstration
  B+50+2 Applet: Fourier Synthesis
  B+50+4 Applet: Superposition of waves
  B+50+5 Model of longitudinal standing wave, hand-cranked.
  B+50+10 Rope and strobe: Transverse standing waves, motor driven.
  B+50+15 Reuben's tube: Standing sound waves in flames along a large pipe.
  B+50+20 Set of eight organ pipes to make a major scale.
  B+50+25 Tunable organ pipe.
  B+50+30 Set of ten suspended metal rods struck with a wooden mallet.
  B+50+35 Xylophone.
  B+50+45 Unbalanced spinning wheel vibrates spring steel reeds.
  B+50+50 Sonometer: Resonant chamber with bowed strings (2).
  B+50+55 Torison wave model.
  B+50+65 Applet: Standing Waves
  B+50+60 Applet: Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion
  B+50+75 Applet: Longitudinal Waves - 1
  B+50+70 Applet: Transverse and Longitudinal waves
  B+50+80 Applet: Standing logitudinal waves
  B+50+85 Applet: Standing Wave (Explanation by Superposition with the Reflected Wave)
  B+50+90 Driven standing waves with different mass/unit length strings.

Vibrational Modes (B+55)


  B+55+0 Film loop: "Vibrations of a metal plate", 3:45 min.
  B+55+1 Film loop: "Vibrations of a drum", 3:25 min.
  B+55+5 Chladni's disc: Bowed disk forms patterns in sprinkled salt.
  B+55+7 Chladni's Figures: Vibrational modes of a metal plate
  B+55+10 Large glass bowl with ping pong balls and violin bow.
  B+55+15 Young's modulus rod: Hammer and rod with nodes marked.
  B+55+20 Longitudinal wave apparatus: Ball bounces off end of stroked rod.
  B+55+25 Kundt's tube: Powder in tube shows standing waves.
  B+55+30 Applet: Vibrational Modes of a Circular Membrane
  B+55+35 Applet: Hotel webcam of pool during California Eartquake 2010
  B+55+40 Applet: Vibrational Modes of a Rectangular Membrane

Speed of Sound (B+60)


  B+60+0 Speed of sound in air: Speaker resonates air column over water.
  B+60+5 Measurement of speed of sound with microphone, speaker, oscilloscope.

Doppler Shift (B+65)


  B+65+0 Sonalert swung on the end of a string.
  B+65+10 Film loop: "Doppler effect", 3:45 min.
  B+65+15 Applet: Doppler Effect
  B+65+20 Applet: Observe the change in a star's spectrum as its motion changes.
  B+65+25 Search: Black Body
  B+65+30 Applet: Doppler Shift
  B+65+35 Applet: The Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
  B+65+40 Applet: An Example of Doppler Effect

Shock Waves (B+67)


  B+67+0 Whip
  B+67+5 Film loop: "Formation of shock waves", 3:45 min.
  B+67+10 Applet: Bauer & Westfall

Music and the Ear (B+70)


  B+70+0 Ear models.
  B+70+5 Film: "The Piano", sound, 27 min.
  B+70+10 Applet: Fourier Synthesis

Properties of Heat and Matter (C)


Weather and the Atmosphere (C+0)


  C+0+0 Humidity: Hygrometers to show.

Calorimetry (C+5)


  C+5+0 Computer demo: Nesting can calorimeter, runs 3 min.
  C+5+5 Applet: Energy Forms and Changes

Carnot Cycle (C+10)


  C+10+0 Carnot cycle models: Piston/cylinder, PVT surface.
  C+10+5 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.
  C+10+10 Film loop: "Properties of a gas", 3:18 min.

Conduction (C+15)


  C+15+0 Copper/wood cylinder wrapped with paper over bunsen burner.
  C+15+1 Boiling water in paper cup; cup does not burn.
  C+15+2 Copper gauze over flame; gas burns only above gauze.
  C+15+03 Set of metal rods: Heat-sensitive paint changes color.
  C+15+4 Computer demo: Conductivity (see C+15+3), runs 5 min.

Convection (C+20)


  C+20+0 Heat water in "O" shaped tube adding a dye.
  C+20+5 Crooke's radiometer with flashlight, arc lamp or IR source.
  C+20+10 Cardboard strip drawn from glass tube extinguishes candle.
  C+20+15 Hot air balloon: Dry cleaner bag over Bunsen burner rises to ceiling.
  C+20+20 Applet: Balloons & Buoyancy

Engines and Pumps (C+22)


  C+22+0 Engine models: Steam, 4-cycle Otto.
  C+22+5 Model of an air pump.
  C+22+10 Operating Sterling cycle engine, gas powered.
  C+22+15 Operating Sterling cycle engine, hot water powered.
  C+22+20 Applet: Otto Engine
  C+22+25 Applet: Carnot Circle

Fluid Dynamics (C+25)


  C+25+0 Flettner rotorcar blown with fan.
  C+25+2 Smoke Ring Generator
  C+25+4 Airzooka
  C+25+5 Bernoulli's principle: Ball suspended in air stream.
  C+25+10 Glass standpipes: Water flows through tube, heights vary.
  C+25+11 Glass standpipes with a constriction. Similar to C+25+10.
  C+25+15 Glass aspirator: Compressed air draws colored water up glass tube.
  C+25+16 Compressed air through funnel sucks in ball.
  C+25+17 Compressed air attracts card with pin to holder.
  C+25+20 Venturi meter: Manometer tubes on tapered wind tunnel tube.
  C+25+25 Pitot tube inserted in wind stream with manometer indicator.
  C+25+30 Two roof models, hinged, placed in wind stream.
  C+25+35 Video camera shows fluid flow around various objects.
  C+25+40 Water in vertical standpipe with holes at different heights.
  C+25+45 Hydraulic ram water pump, working model.
  C+25+50 A water vortex in two soda bottles joined vertically.
  C+25+55 A vortex tube seperates compressed air into jets of hot and cold air.
  C+25+60 Applet: Fluid Pressure and Flow
  C+25+65 Applet: Vector Fields
  C+25+70 Applet: Faraday's Law
  C+25+25Extreme Spin on Launched Ball

Surface Tension and Capillary Action (C+27)


  C+27+0 Set of capillary tubes and dye on video camera.
  C+27+5 Various bubble frames.
  C+27+10 Soap boat or camphor boats in one meter square pan of water.
  C+27+20 Wire sieve boat floats on water until alcohol is added.
  C+27+30Superhydrophobic surfaces

Fluid Statics (C+30)


  C+30+0 Revolving 'drumhead' with manometer shows pressure in water tank.
  C+30+5 Magdeburg's hemispheres(cast iron) evacuated, can't be separated.
  C+30+10 Hydraulic jack with pressure gauge, breaks 2"x 2" piece of wood.
  C+30+15 Archimedes' principle: Cup and plug on balance beam.
  C+30+17 Archimedes' principle: weighing beakers in water.
  C+30+20 Archimedes' principle: Fish submerged in water on balance beam.
  C+30+25 Archimedes' principle: Aluminum and brass cylinders.
  C+30+30 Film loop: "Archimedes' principle", 3:40 min.
  C+30+35 Cartesian divers: Pressure on cap sends divers sinking.
  C+30+40 Torricelli Barometer: Column of mercury in bell jar.
  C+30+45 Large model of aneroid barometer.
  C+30+50 Pascal's vases: Water in removable vases with pressure gauge.
  C+30+52 Interconnected set of glass vases of different shapes.
  C+30+53 Interconnected tube with immiscible liquids.
  C+30+55 Working model of the lung: Balloons in a bell jar over a diaphragm.
  C+30+60 Suction cup holds large mass suspended from heavy glass plate.
  C+30+62 Mat held down by atmospheric pressure.
  C+30+65 Collapse 1 gallon metal can with vacuum pump.
  C+30+68 Vacuum Cannon
  C+30+70 The weight of air.
  C+30+75 Vacuum hoist, working model.
  C+30+80 Inversion table and blood pressure monitor
  C+30+85 Applet: Buoyancy
  C+30+90 Applet: Density
  C+30+95 Applet: Fluid Pressure and Flow
  C+30+100 Applet: Buoyant Force
  C+30+105 Applet: More Buoyancy
  C+30+110 Illustration of buoyancy and drag force

Heat and Work (C+35)


  C+35+0 Mechanical equivalent of heat: Aluminum cylinder, crank, rope with 5 kg weight and large LED display.

Heat Capacity (C+40)


  C+40+0 Ball race: Five different balls heated and placed on paraffin sheet.

Heat of Fusion (C+45)


  C+45+0 Computer demo: Heat of fusion of tin.
  C+45+5 Applet: States of Matter: Basics

Irreversibility and Fluctuations (C+50)


  C+50+0 Java Applet: Gas mixing simulation
  C+50+5 Black balls and white balls in a box are shaken.
  C+50+10 Film loop: "Reversibility of time", 3:40 min.
  C+50+15 Film: "Symmetry in physical law" (Feynman), sound, 57 min.
  C+50+20 Film: "Distinction of past and future "(Feynman), sound, 46 min.
  C+50+25 Film: "Probability and uncertainty "(Feynman), sound, 56 min.
  C+50+30 Drum in glycerine rotates to smear line of dye into a plane and back.

Kinetic Theory and Gas Models (C+55)


  C+55+0 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls on OHP.
  C+55+5 Hexstat probability device.
  C+55+10 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.
  C+55+15 Brownian motion: Smoke particles viewed using TV camera.
  C+55+20 Brownian motion: Like C+55+0, with an aluminum disk added.
  C+55+25 Stoekle's apparatus: Heated tube with mercury and glass bits.
  C+55+30 Ruchardt's tube: Ball oscillates in a vertical glass tube on jug.
  C+55+35 Diffusion of Ammonia and HCl.
  C+55+40 Osmosis of helium through semi-porous cup.
  C+55+45 Viscosity of air: One rotating disk drives another.
  C+55+55 Breathe helium, voice pitch rises; breathe SF6, voice pitch lowers.
  C+55+60 Equipartition of Energy: Different mass balls bounce out at different times.
  C+55+65 Applet: Gas Properties
  C+55+70 Applet: A molecular explanation of pressure
  C+55+75 Applet: Brownian motion
  C+55+85 Applet: Maxwell's Demon

Liquification of a Gas (C+60)


  C+60+0 Hydraulic pump liquifies CO2 gas in glass column.
  C+60+5 LN2 demos: pewter bell and spring, color change tube, LN2 cannon.
  C+60+10 Film: "Unusual properties of liquid helium", sound, 16 min.
  C+60+15 Pewter bell rings true after submersion in liquid Nitrogen.

Molecular Models and Crystal Structure (C+62)


  C+62+0 Molecular models, ball and stick.
  C+62+5 Film: "Bubble model of a metal", silent, 11 min.
  C+62+10 Wave surfaces of crystals.
  C+62+15 Model of calcite crystal.
  C+62+20 Assorted crystals to show.
  C+62+25 Wall chart of periodic table.

Radiation (C+65)


  C+65+0 Concave mirrors focus candle flame on thermopile across bench.
  C+65+2 Light the Match.
  C+65+5 Computer demo: Kirchhoff's radiation law, runs 15 min.
  C+65+10 Large transformer heats metal strip with chalk marks on it.
  C+65+15 Crooke's radiometer with flashlight, arc lamp or IR source.
  C+65+20 Box with white interior appears black from hole in the side.
  C+65+25 FLIR T200 Infrared camera
  C+65+30 Applet: The Greenhouse Effect
  C+65+35 Applet: Radiating Charge
  C+65+40 Applet: Blackbody Spectrum
  C+65+45 Applet: Synchrotron Radiation
  C+65+50 Applet: Blackbody Radiation
  C+65+55 Applet: Plank Radiation Formula
  C+65+60 Applet: Electrodynamics Simulation
  C+65+65 Applet: Antenna Simulation

Temperature and Expansion (C+70)


  C+70+0 Galileo's air thermometer forces liquid down when heated.
  C+70+5 Heated iron wire stretches, rotates pointer.
  C+70+6 Heated horizontal nichrome wire stretches, weight sags.
  C+70+10 Heated steel rod expands, raises pointer,breaks pin on cooling.
  C+70+15 Ring and ball: Ball fits through ring only after ring is heated.
  C+70+20 Ice bomb: Iron sphere ruptured by freezing water.
  C+70+22 Heating a rubber band: negative coefficient of thermal expansion
  C+70+25 Cubic coefficient of expansion: Dissectable wooden cube.
  C+70+30 Steam gun: Friction heated water in tube shoots a cork.
  C+70+32 LN2 in a model cannon shoots a cork.
  C+70+35 Bimetallic strip: Brass/invar strip curves when heated.
  C+70+40 Bimetallic switch: Change in temperature lights cold/hot lamps.
  C+70+45 Franklin's pulse glass: Two glass bulbs and tube containing ether.
  C+70+47 Dippy bird: Large glass bird containing ether oscillates.
  C+70+50 Piston and cylinder compress/expand air measuring temp. and pressure.
  C+70+55 Fire syringe: paper is ignited in a cylinder with a piston.
  C+70+60 CO2 fire extinguisher: Expanding gas freezes into snow.
  C+70+65 Cooling by expansion: Jar with water compressed with air.
  C+70+70 Hot water geyser, runs 5-10 min.
  C+70+75 Boyle's Law: At constant T, Pressure times Volume is a constant.
  C+70+80 Gay-Lussac's Law: At constant V, Pressure is proportional to Temperature.
  C+70+85 Charles' Law: At constant P, Volume is proportional to Temperature.
  C+70+90 Grain Silo explosion: A cloud of power is ignited and blows lid off of can.

Thermometry (C+75)


  C+75+0 Measurement of temperature: Various types of thermometers.
  C+75+5 Transparency: Comparison of F deg , C deg , and K temperature scales.
  C+75+10 Transparency: Chronological history of the concepts of heat.
  C+75+15 Galileo's air thermometer forces liquid down when heated.
  C+75+20 Liquid Crystals: sheet changes colors with body temperature.

Triple Point (C+80)


  C+80+0 Triple Point: Cooled water in sealed cell exhibits all three phases.
  C+80+2 Freezing liquid Nitrogen.
  C+80+5 Triple Point demo: Water boils under vacuum making ice.
  C+80+10 P.V.T. surface model for water.
  C+80+15 P.V.T. surface model for carbon dioxide.
  C+80+20 Wall chart of isothermals.

Mechanical Properties of Materials (C+90)


  C+90+0 Elasticity: Balls bouncing on steel or glass cylinder.
  C+90+5 Breaking point of a wire is measured on a spring scale.
  C+90+10 Young's modulus of elasticity: Weight stretches wire.
  C+90+15 Shear: Stack of masonite squares.
  C+90+16 Shear: Foam block.
  C+90+20 Viscosity set: Pistons in oil and water-filled glass tubes.
  C+90+25 Prince Rupert's Drops.
  C+90+30 Applet: Microwaves
  C+90+35 Applet: Molecules and Light

Electricity and Magnetism (D)


Capacitance (D+0)


  D+0+0 Attraction between horizontal plates of a charged capacitor.
  D+0+2 Various capacitors to show.
  D+0+4 Parallel plate capacitor with dielectric materials and electroscope.
  D+0+5 Force on a dielectric in a capacitor
  D+0+6 Capacitor doorbell driven by Van de Graaff generator.
  D+0+8 Series capacitor array.
  D+0+10 Parallel capacitors array: A charged capacitor charges the others.
  D+0+12 Visual charge/discharge of a capacitor through a load.
  D+0+14 Computer demo: Charge/discharge of a capacitor, runs at least 1 min.
  D+0+16 Discharging a capacitor through a lamp.
  D+0+18 Capacitors with a series neon bulb on A.C. and D.C.
  D+0+20 Capacitor in series in an audio circuit: High pass filter.
  D+0+22 Effects of changing a D.C. voltage in a series RC circuit.
  D+0+24 Capacitor in parallel in an audio circuit: Low pass filter.
  D+0+26 Capacitor in parallel in a D.C. circuit.
  D+0+28 Energy storage in a commercial capacitor. Loud bang!
  D+0+30 Oscillator made with resistor, capacitor and neon lamp.
  D+0+32 Same as D+0+30 using speaker for audio tone generation.
  D+0+34 Same as D+0+30 using oscilloscope to display waveform.
  D+0+35 Applet: Capacitor Lab
  D+0+40 Applet: Circuit Construction Kit (AC+DC), Virtual Lab
  D+0+45 Applet: Water Droplets in Electric Field
  D+0+50 Applet: RC Circuits
  D+0+55 Applet: CR Filter's Response (Analog)

Electromagnetic Oscillations (D+5)


  D+5+0 Resonance in a series LCR circuit using 120 v.a.c.
  D+5+1 LCR paradox
  D+5+2 LCR series resonance curve of V vs. F (2 - 20kHz) on an oscilloscope.
  D+5+4 High frequency filtering using a capacitor and inductor.
  D+5+6 Crystal radio circuit for AM reception.
  D+5+8 Damped oscillations in a resonant LCR circuit on an oscilloscope.
  D+5+10 85 MHz radio transmitter, with indicating lamp on dipole antenna.
  D+5+12 Seibt effect: Wire wound glass tube with 510 transmitter.
  D+5+14 Standing waves on two parallel wires, with 510 transmitter.
  D+5+16 Lodge's experiment: Spark gap radio transmitter and receiver.
  D+5+18 3 cm. microwave klystron oscillator with cavity and waveguides.
  D+5+20 3 cm. microwave transmitter and receiver.
  D+5+22 Magnetron assembly to show.
  D+5+24 Waveguide pieces to show.
  D+5+26 Standing waves (micro or sound) in an adjustable cavity.
  D+5+28 AM and FM Demonstration(minimum 24 hr notice required).
  D+5+30 Wall chart of electromagnetic spectrum.
  D+5+32 Plexiglas model of electromagnetic wave.
  D+5+34 LEDs oscillate in stored energy LC circuit.
  D+5+36 Applet: Radiating Charge
  D+5+38 Applet: Radio Waves & Electromagnetic Fields
  D+5+40 Applet: Electrodynamics Simulation
  D+5+42 Applet: Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
  D+5+44 Applet: The Field of a Moving Charge
  D+5+46 Applet: Antenna Simuulation

Electrostatics (D+10)


  D+10+0 Electric fields: Lines of force shown on an OHP.
  D+10+2 Transparency: Mapping of an electric field.
  D+10+4 Pith balls on thread, with positive and negative charged rods.
  D+10+6 Attraction and repulsion of charged styrofoam balls.
  D+10+8 Braun and Leaf electroscopes.
  D+10+9 Discharging an electroscope through ionization
  D+10+10 Faraday's ice pail: Charge induced on the outside of a pail.
  D+10+11 Alternate charge resides on outside of conductor
  D+10+12 Charge resides on the outside of a conductor.
  D+10+13 Faraday cage: blocks signal from portable radio
  D+10+14 Charging an electroscope by induction.
  D+10+16 Separation of charge using electrical tape and an electroscope.
  D+10+18 Electrophorous: Cat fur on teflon, acetate on lucite.
  D+10+20 Van de Graaff generator.
  D+10+22 Wimshurst machine, large or small.
  D+10+24 Electrostatic pinwheel:Van de Graaff makes pinwheel spin.
  D+10+26 Various Leyden jars to show.
  D+10+28 Electrostatic doorbell: Ball bangs between charged plates.
  D+10+30 Kelvin water drop electrostatic charge generator.
  D+10+35 Electric field created by Van de Graff splits ions in flame
  D+10+40 Applet: Charges and Fields
  D+10+45 Applet: Electric Field Hockey
  D+10+50 Applet: Electric Field of Dreams
  D+10+55 Applet: John Travoltage
  D+10+60 Applet: Balloons and Static Electricity
  D+10+65 Applet: 3D Electrostatic Field Simulation
  D+10+75 Applet: Field and potential produced by point charges
  D+10+80 Applet: Electrostatics Visualizations - The Charged Metal Slab
  D+10+85 Applet: Electric Field
  D+10+90 Electrostatics Index
  D+10+95 Applet: Electrostatics Simulation
  D+10+100 Applet: 2-D Electrostatic Field Simulation
  D+10+105 Applet: 3-D Electrostatic Field Simulation

Faraday's Law (D+15)


  D+15+30 Demonstration of dependence of number of coils on induced flux
  D+15+0 Bar magnet induces current in a coil, shown on galvanometer.
  D+15+1 Oscillating magnets in coupled coils
  D+15+2 Elementary generator: Bar moved in magnetic field.
  D+15+4 Earth inductor: Coil spun in Earth's field makes voltage.
  D+15+6 Generator: Coil with DC commutator rotates between magnets.
  D+15+8 Alternator: Coil with AC commutator rotates between magnets.
  D+15+10 Hand-cranked AC alternator powers 120 volt lamp.
  D+15+11 Hand-cranked DC generator powers 120 volt lamp.
  D+15+12 Back EMF in a series DC motor with large flywheel.
  D+15+14 Eddy currents: Copper disk rotates over a spinning bar magnet.
  D+15+16 Damped pendulum: Swinging metal disks damped in magnetic field.
  D+15+20 Jumping rings: High current AC coil causes rings to jump.
  D+15+22 Skin effect: Metal sheet shielding varies with frequency.
  D+15+24 Levitator: Aluminum dish floats four inches off platform.
  D+15+26 Eddy currents:Small magnet slowly drops between aluminum rails.
  D+15+28 Eddy currents: Neodymium Magnet Drop.
  D+15+35 Equivalence of large and small loops around enclosed flux
  D+15+40 Flux through loop. EMF depends on position of the meter
  D+15+45 Magnet inserted and withdrawn from copper ring causes ring to swing.
  D+15+50 Applet: Faraday's Electromagnetic Lab
  D+15+55 Applet: Faraday's Law
  D+15+60 Applet: Genereator
  D+15+65 Applet: The Falling Ring with Finite Resistance
  D+15+70 Applet:Visualizing Electricity and Magnetism at MIT
  D+15+75 Applet: Light Index

Inductance (D+20)


  D+20+0 Energy stored in large coil with soft iron core flashes bulb.
  D+20+2 LR time constant: Square wave drives series LR on oscilloscope.
  D+20+4 AC dimmer: Soft iron core in coil dims lamps.
  D+20+5 Applet: Circuit Construction Kit (AC+DC), Virtual Lab
  D+20+10 Applet: Molecular Expressions Electricity and Magnetism
  D+20+15 Applet: Inductance

LCR Phase Relationships (D+25)


  D+25+0 Phases of V and I in series circuit as RL shifts to RC.
  D+25+5 Applet: RLC Circuits (DC)
  D+25+10 Applet: RLC Circuits (AC)
  D+25+15 Applet: Circuit Simulator

Magnetic Fields (D+30)


  D+30+0 Suspended magnetic lodestone on string.
  D+30+1 Large compass needle on stand.
  D+30+2 Dip needle compass.
  D+30+4 Earth model with internal magnet and pivoting probe magnet.
  D+30+6 Iron filings and permanent magnets to show field on an OHP.
  D+30+8 Compass needle shows field around a high current wire on bench top.
  D+30+10 Iron filings around a high current vertical wire on OHP to show field.
  D+30+12 Iron filings around a current carrying coil on OHP to show field.
  D+30+14 Magnetic field around a solenoid with pivoting probe magnet.
  D+30+16 Ampere's law: Currents in parallel wires attract or repel.
  D+30+18 Force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field.
  D+30+20 Elementary motor: Bar on rails over solenoid with core.
  D+30+22 Torque on coil suspended between two magnets.
  D+30+24 Vacuum tube with screen shows cathode rays bent with a magnet.
  D+30+25 Elementary motor: De La Rive Tube.
  D+30+26 E/M tube: Circular bending of an electron beam in a magnetic field.
  D+30+28 Hall effect: Magnetic field induces a voltage in a neon plasma.
  D+30+35 Applet: Magnet and Compass
  D+30+40 Applet: Magnets and Electromagnets
  D+30+45 Applet: Current Loop
  D+30+50 Applet: Force on Moving Charges
  D+30+55 Applet: Magnetostatics Index
  D+30+60 Applet: Magnetic Field
  D+30+65 Applet: 3-D Magnetostatic Field Simulation
  D+30+30 Force on current carrying wire in a magnetic field

Magnetic Properties (D+35)


  D+35+0 Wobbly bar: Magnets in frame balanced by repulsive forces.
  D+35+2 Making a magnet by electromagnetic induction.
  D+35+4 Making small magnets by breaking up a larger magnet.
  D+35+6 Barkhausen effect: Magnet and coil with soft iron core.
  D+35+7 Barkhausen effect model: Many tiny magnets on pivots on OHP.
  D+35+9 Para and diamagnetic materials in magnetic field with OHP.
  D+35+10 Para and diamagnetic materials in magnetic field with arc lamp.
  D+35+12 Linear motor: An iron core jumps into a solenoid.
  D+35+14 YBaCuO pellet with magnet in liquid nitrogen on TV camera.
  D+35+15 Mass Driver
  D+35+16 One of These Balls is Not Like the Other
  D+35+20 Curie Temperature

Meters (D+40)


  D+40+0 Tangent galvanometer: Compass needle pivots in a coil.
  D+40+2 Elementary galvanometer: Coil on spring in magnetic field.
  D+40+4 Mavometer: Ammeter / voltmeter / galvanometer
  D+40+6 Various meters for display.
  D+40+8 Ammeter shunt: Only a small current flows to the meter.
  D+40+10 Applet: Circuit Construction Kit (AC+DC), Virtual Lab

Motors (D+45)


  D+45+0 Rolling bar motor: Same as D+30+ 20.
  D+45+2 Elementary split-ring armature DC motor. D+15+6 as a motor.
  D+45+4 AC induction motor: Armature in a whirling field.
  D+45+6 Elementary motor: Electron beam revolves in magnetic field.
  D+45+8 Elementary motor: Magnet, wire and battery make a simple motor.
  D+45+10 Elementary motor: Magnets and battery and copper coil make a simple motor.
  D+45+11 Simple Motor Rolls Straight and in Circle
  D+45+12 Applet: AC circuits: alternating current electricity

Oscilloscopes (D+50)


  D+50+0 The Braun tube with magnetic and electrostatic deflection.

Resistance (D+55)


  D+55+0 Resistance boards: Series, parallel, Wheatstone bridge.
  D+55+2 Watt's law: Variable resistor, glow coil, volt and amp meter.
  D+55+4 High current melts the fuse wire.
  D+55+6 Resistance thermometer: Iron coil in liquid Nitrogen and flame varies current.
  D+55+8 Effect of temperature on current in carbon or tungsten filaments.
  D+55+10 Large tungsten filament lamp; as it heats, current drops.
  D+55+12 Oscillator with resistor, capacitor and neon lamp.
  D+55+13 Same as D+55+12 using speaker for audio tone generation.
  D+55+14 Same as D+55+12 using oscilloscope to display waveform.
  D+55+16 Film: "Elementary electricity", sound; 8 min.
  D+55+18 Resistor analog: Marbles cascading down pin board.
  D+55+20 Applet: Battery-Resistor Circuit
  D+55+22 Applet: Conductivity
  D+55+24 Applet: Kirchhoff's Rules (Circuit 2)
  D+55+28 Applet: Circuit Construction Kit (AC+DC), Virtual Lab
  D+55+30 Applet: Ohm's Law
  D+55+32 Applet: Resistance at the Molecular Level
  D+55+34 Applet: Edison Elephant
  D+55+36 Applet: Paul Nord

Solid State and Semiconductors (D+60)


  D+60+0 P-N Junction as a rectifier: Current flows one way.
  D+60+2 P-N Junction as a rectifier: Diode bridge rectifies AC voltage.
  D+60+4 Photoelectric effect: Light on P-N junction causes current flow.
  D+60+6 Several commercial solar cells.
  D+60+8 Commercial solar cell spins propeller using small arc lamp.
  D+60+10 Impact on peizo-electric device flashes neon bulb.
  D+60+12 Applet: Fermi Level, Fermi Function and Electron Occupancy of Localized Energy States
  D+60+14 Applet: Fermi Level vs. Carrier Concentration and Doping of Donor and Acceptor Impurities

Thermionic Emission (D+65)


  D+65+0 Edison effect: Electrons are cast off from hot filament.

Thermoelectricity (D+70)


  D+70+0 Thermocouple and thermopile, both make electricity from heat.
  D+70+2 Thermocouple magnet: Flame with water cooling holds weight.
  D+70+4 Thermocouple magnet: Flame with ice bath, holds weight.
  D+70+6 Thermoelectric fan: Fan runs off of hot and cold water.
  D+70+8 Peltier junction: Forward current freezes water drop, reverse boils.

Transformers (D+75)


  D+75+0 Demountable transformer with many secondary coils from 10:1 to 1:46.
  D+75+1 Same as above: Secondary used for spot-welding.
  D+75+2 Same as above: Secondary used for induction melting.
  D+75+3 Same as above: Secondary used for small Jacob's ladder.
  D+75+4 Large Tesla coil. 15 inch discharge.
  D+75+6 Automobile coil makes a spark.
  D+75+8 Large Jacob's ladder.

Voltaic Cells (D+80)


  D+80+0 Copper nail and iron nail in a lemon using a multimeter.
  D+80+4 Gotham cell: Assorted metal electrodes in sulfuric acid bath.
  D+80+6 Storage cell: Gotham cell is charged up and rings a bell.

Electrolysis (D+85)


  D+85+0 Electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen.
  D+85+2 Bubble Electrolysis.

Optics (E)


Diffraction (E+10)


  E+10+0 Single slit diffraction using laser beam through adjustable slit.
  E+10+5 Laser beam through sets of 1, 2, or multiple electro-formed slits.
  E+10+10 Airy's disk: Pinhole diffraction using laser beam.
  E+10+15 Diffraction about pinhead, razorblade, wood screw using laser.
  E+10+20 Microwave diffraction by a large adjustable iris.
  E+10+25 Microwave zone plates.
  E+10+30 Bragg diffraction using microwaves and steel balls in foam cube.
  E+10+40 Two points of light diffract through an iris, shown with T.V. camera.
  E+10+45 Limit of resolution: Two small lamps on adjustable slide.
  E+10+50 Poisson's spot: Interference pattern within circular shadow.
  E+10+55 Laser beam diffraction off object and being reassembled
  E+10+60 Applet: Diffraction
  E+10+65 Applet: Single-Slit Difraction

Color Perception (E+5)


  E+5+0 Standard color blindness tests and box of colored yarns.
  E+5+5 Red, green, blue light on three-sided rotatable pyramid.
  E+5+10 Newton's color disk: When rotated,appears white.
  E+5+15 Three-color projector for additive color mixing with arc lamp.
  E+5+20 Arc light spectrum recombined with concave mirror on lucite rod.
  E+5+25 Cyan, magenta, and yellow filters mix subtractively on OHP.
  E+5+30 Arc light spectrum with various filters.
  E+5+35 Rotating disk with black and white lines makes color illusion.
  E+5+40 Purkinje effect: At low intensity, blue is more visible than red.
  E+5+45 Two slides plus red and green light gives full color illusion.
  E+5+50 Applet: Color Vision
  E+5+55 Applet: Optical Illusions
  E+5+60 Applet: Additive Color

Gratings and Spectra (E+15)


  E+15+0 First and second order transmission gratings, with arc lamp.
  E+15+1 Reflection grating with arc lamp.
  E+15+5 Arc lamp spectra from NaCl, CaCl2, SrCl soaked rods.
  E+15+10 Mercury spectrum using slit and grating, includes UV lines.
  E+15+12 Wall chart of mercury spectrum.
  E+15+13 Applet: transmission and absorption spectra of all the elements
  E+15+15 Absorption spectrum of Na using arc lamp, slit and grating.
  E+15+20 Diffraction patterns of various gratings using He-Ne laser.
  E+15+25 Hand-held gratings for class to view Hg, Ne discharge tubes.
  E+15+30 Applet: Neon Lights & Other Discharge Lamps
  E+15+35 Applet: Tim's Grating

Holography (E+20)


  E+20+0 Films: "Laser light", U of Utah, sound, 38 min.; "Introduction to Holography",sound, 17 min.; "Introduction to Lasers", sound, 17 min.
  E+20+5 Transmission hologram viewed with laser light.
  E+20+6 Reflection hologram viewed with white light.

Interference (E+25)


  E+25+0 Large wood model of a double slit with hinged waves.
  E+25+5 Ripple tank with plane or spherical water waves and barriers.
  E+25+10 Microwave interference with single and double slits.
  E+25+15 Laser beam through various slit and grating combinations.
  E+25+20 Red/green/blue line source viewed with double slit paddles.
  E+25+25 Thin film interference with optical flats and sodium lamp.
  E+25+30 Newton's rings by transmission or reflection on arc bench.
  E+25+35 Same as E+25+30, using Hall's prism.
  E+25+40 Soap film interference: The soap bubble experiment on arc bench.
  E+25+42 Oil film interference on water.
  E+25+45 Thin film interference with mercury light on mica sheets.
  E+25+50 Laser projected through Fabry-Perot interferometer shows pattern.
  E+25+55 Lloyd's mirror: Laser beam interferes with reflection from glass.
  E+25+60 Michelson interferometer fringes with laser or white light.
  E+25+65 Microwave interference by multiple reflection.
  E+25+75 Applet: Michelson-Morley Experiment
  E+25+80 Applet: Interference of Waves
  E+25+85 Applet: Double slit experiment
  E+25+90 Applet: Interference of Light at a Double Slit

Lenses (E+30)


  E+30+5 Air, glass and water lenses in water tank with arc lamp.
  E+30+10 Blackboard optics: Light sources with lucite lenses.
  E+30+15 Real images: Lighted arrow image and various lenses.
  E+30+17 Real images: Lighted ‘F-object’ and an astygmatic lens.
  E+30+18 Real images: Lighted ‘F-object’ and a cylindrical lens.
  E+30+20 Cylindrical lens of lucite with words "DIOXIDE GLASS".
  E+30+25 Fresnel lenses to show.
  E+30+30 Large lens shows chromatic aberration on screen using arc lamp.
  E+30+35 Pincushion and barrel distortion of lenses using arc lamp.
  E+30+40 Cylindrical aberration: Wooden model.
  E+30+45 Astronomical telescope: Using objective and eyepiece lenses.
  E+30+50 Galilean telescope: similar to E+30+45.
  E+30+55 Compound microscope is assembled from lenses.
  E+30+60 Lantern slide projector with removable housing.
  E+30+65 Model of the eye, with near/far sight lenses, using arc lamp.
  E+30+70 Applet: Geometric Optics
  E+30+75 Applet: Thin Lens
  E+30+80 Applet: Two thin lenses
  E+30+85 Applet: Spherical Thin Lens in Gauss' Condition
  E+30+90 Applet: Auto-colimation Method
  E+30+95 Applet: Bessel Method
  E+30+100 Applet: Badal Method
  E+30+105 Applet: Vision Corrections
  E+30+110 Applet: Setting the reticulated bezel
  E+30+115 Applet: Astronomical Telescope
  E+30+120 Applet: Galileo's Telescope
  E+30+125 Applet: The Microscope

Metallic Color (E+35)


  E+35+0 Color by reflected and transmitted light, using gold leaf.

Mirrors (E+40)


  E+40+0 Arc lamp and mirror on large disk rotate showing beam angles.
  E+40+5 Blackboard optics: Light sources with plane and curved mirrors.
  E+40+10 Phantom lightbulb: Image in a plane mirror.
  E+40+15 Hand held plane mirror and right angle mirror.
  E+40+20 Variable angle mirror assembly with candle.
  E+40+21 Barbershop mirrors:Parallel mirrors with light bulb.
  E+40+25 Retrodirective reflector: Silvered right angle prism, using laser.
  E+40+30 Reflections from concave and convex mirrors with lighted arrow.
  E+40+35 Phantom bouquet: Real image from a concave mirror.
  E+40+40 Clam shell mirrors: Floating coin illusion.
  E+40+41 Concave mirrors focus candle flame on thermopile across bench. (same as 650)
  E+40+42 Light the Match (same as C+65+2).
  E+40+44 Applet: Thin Lens (converging/diverging lens/mirrors)
  E+40+46 Applet: Plane Mirror
  E+40+48 Applet: Spherical mirror: study of stigma
  E+40+50 Applet: The Newton telescope
  E+40+52 Applet: The Cassegrain telescope

Polarization and Birefringence (E+45)


  E+45+0 Two picket fence sections with slats and rope to make waves.
  E+45+5 Microwaves with grid. Transmitter and receiver are polarized.
  E+45+10 Malus experiment: Polarization by reflection off glass surface.
  E+45+15 Sunset: solution in tank scatters blue light, using arc lamp.
  E+45+15 Polarization of light by internal reflection: Fresnel rhomb.
  E+45+20 Polarization of light through a pile of glass plates, using arc lamp.
  E+45+25 Commercial Polaroid filters on an OHP.
  E+45+30 Plaster models of positive and biaxial crystals.
  E+45+35 Two tourmaline crystals act as polaroids, using arc lamp.
  E+45+40 Light through polaroid and calcite, using arc lamp.
  E+45+45 Model of a calcite crystal.
  E+45+50 Light through Nicol prism and Nicol analyzer, using arc lamp.
  E+45+55 Quartz prisms give a single and double spectrum, using arc lamp.
  E+45+60 Polarized light and stressed lucite on an OHP.
  E+45+65 Optical rotation of polarized light by sugar solution, using arc lamp.
  E+45+70 Optical rotation by sugar solution produces barber pole, using arc lamp.
  E+45+75 Mechanical model to show circular polarization; hand-cranked.
  E+45+80 Circular polarization with quarter wave plate, using arc lamp.
  E+45+85 Circular polarization of microwaves by elliptical metal tube.
  E+45+90 Circular polarization of microwaves: With reflector and grids.
  E+45+95 Polarized light thru Karo syrup shows dark bands, using arc lamp.
  E+45+100 10_ retarder plate makes dark bands in spectrum, using arc lamp.
  E+45+110 Visible nodes and antinodes in linearly birefringent plexiglass rod.
  E+45+115 Applet: Polarization of Light (3-D Version)

Prisms (E+50)


  E+50+0 Total internal reflection: 45 deg-45 deg-90 deg prism using arc lamp.
  E+50+5 Four-prisms, same index of refraction, different angles, using laser.
  E+50+10 Eight-prisms, different index of refraction, same angle, using laser.
  E+50+15 Blackboard optics: Light source and lucite prism.
  E+50+20 Refraction of white light by prism using arc lamp.
  E+50+25 Light from arc lamp enters direct view prism emerges as spectrum.
  E+50+30 Dove prism to erect projected images using arc lamp.
  E+50+35 Binoculars and Porro prisms to show.
  E+50+40 Applet: The Prism

Propagation of Light (E+55)


  E+55+0 Inverse square law: Light bulb in wire frame.
  E+55+5 He-Ne laser compared to non-coherent red light bulb.
  E+55+10 Image formed by a pinhole using three light bulbs in a box.
  E+55+15 Applet: Electric Field Lines around an Oscillating Charge
  E+55+20 Applet: Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
  E+55+25 Applet: Synchrotron Radiation
  E+55+30 Applet: Fermat's Principle
  E+55+35 Applet: Radiation Pressure

Refraction and Reflection (E+60)


  E+60+0 Displacement of a beam passing through a thick plate of glass.
  E+60+2 Indices of Refraction: glass in glycerin and phantom crystals.
  E+60+5 Total internal reflection/critical angle: Nakamura water tank.
  E+60+10 Rainbow: Refraction of white light by a liquid sphere.
  E+60+15 Light pipes and fiber optic flashlight.
  E+60+17 Water fiber optic
  E+60+20 Flexible light pipe using arc lamp.
  E+60+25 Fiber optic cable transmits picture from slide to video monitor.
  E+60+30 Microwave analogy of the light pipe using flexible metal tubing.
  E+60+35 Reflection of microwaves off an aluminum plate.
  E+60+40 Variable index of refraction: laser beam bends in water tank with sugar.
  E+60+45 Applet: Reflection of a sin wave
  E+60+50 Applet: Bending light
  E+60+55 Applet: Refraction and Reflection
  E+60+60 Applet: Specular and Diffuse Reflection
  E+60+65 Applet: Refraction of Light
  E+60+70 Applet: Reflection and Refraction
  E+60+75 Applet: Physics of Rainbows
  E+60+80 Applet: The world above the water, as seen by a fish
  E+60+85 Applet: Diopter: a study of refraction
  E+60+90 Applet: Spherical surface: a study of refraction
  E+60+95 Primary and Secondary Bow of a Rainbow
  E+60+100 Applet: Zen Photon Garden

Spectral Energy (E+65)


  E+65+0 IR source illuminates audience viewed with CCD TV camera in dark room.
  E+65+5 Crooke's radiometer with flashlight or IR source.
  E+65+10 Detection of the IR, visible, and UV spectra using arc lamp.
  E+65+12 FLIR T200 Infrared camera
  E+65+15 Concave mirrors and horn thermopile senses candle across room.
  E+65+20 Measurement of light intensity: Footcandle meter.
  E+65+25 As light bulb filament increases temp. its spectrum shifts red to blue.
  E+65+30 UV light causes mineral and fabric samples to fluoresce different colors.
  E+65+35 Applet: Blackbody Spectrum

Modern and Contemporary Physics (F)


Cathode and Canal Rays (F+0)


  F+0+0 Vacuum tube with screen show cathode rays bent with a magnet.
  F+0+5 Vacuum tube with metal cross makes shadow with cathode rays.
  F+0+10 Vacuum tube with paddlewheel spins from cathode ray impact.
  F+0+15 Braun tube (CRT) with magnetic and electrostatic deflection.

Quantum Mechanics (F+105)


  F+105+0 Applet: Band Structure
  F+105+5 Applet: Double Wells and Covalent Bonds
  F+105+10 Applet: Quantum Bound States
  F+105+15 Applet: Quantum Tunneling and Wave Packets
  F+105+20 Applet: Quantum Wave Interference
  F+105+25 Applet: Quantum Physics Online
  F+105+30 Applet: Hydrogen Atom Orbital
  F+105+35 Applet: Molecular Orbital
  F+105+40 Applet: 1-Dimensional Particle States
  F+105+45 Applet: 1-Dimensional Radiative Transitions
  F+105+50 Applet: Atomic Dipole Transitions
  F+105+55 Applet: 2-Dimensional Rectangular Box
  F+105+60 Applet: 2-Dimensional Circular Box
  F+105+65 Applet: 2-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator
  F+105+70 Applet: Rigid Rotor
  F+105+75 Applet: 3-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator

X-Rays (F+5)


  F+5+0 X-Ray tube: Hard X-rays detected by fluorescent screen.
  F+5+5 X-rays ionize electrode and discharge electroscope.
  F+5+10 X-ray beam through cloud chamber shown on TV camera
  F+5+15 Bragg diffraction using microwaves and steel balls in foam cube.

Electron Diffraction (F+10)


  F+10+0 Electron diffraction by aluminum and graphite on CRT.
  F+10+5 Film: Matter Waves, sound, 28 min.

Photoelectric Effect (F+15)


  F+15+0 UV light hits charged zinc plate and discharges electroscope.
  F+15+5 Light through different filters into phototube changes current.
  F+15+10 Phototube circuit allows current flow in one direction only.
  F+15+15 EMF generated by phototube using halogen light source.
  F+15+20 Commercial solar cell spins propeller using halogen light source.
  F+15+25 Light hits diode,causes current flow. Uses arc lamp.
  F+15+30 NPN junction as a phototransistor amplifier.
  F+15+35 Recording modulates laser beam which hits solar cell and amplifier.
  F+15+40 Film loop: Photoelectric effect, 4:02 min.
  F+15+45 Applet: Conductivity
  F+15+50 Applet: Davisson-Germer: Electron Diffraction
  F+15+55 Applet: Photoelectric Effect

Photons (F+18)


  F+18+0 Film: "Photons", sound, 19 min..
  F+18+5 Film: "Interference of photons", sound 13 min.
  F+18+10 Photomultiplier tubes to show.

Atomic Structure (F+20)


  F+20+0 "Plum pudding": Corks with magnets float in bowl/solenoid on OHP.
  F+20+5 Rutherford scattering model: Steel balls, launcher, and "hill".
  F+20+10 Model of the nucleus: Steel balls in plastic dish on OHP.
  F+20+15 Film: "Rutherford atom", sound, 40 min.
  F+20+20 Mechanical models of the hydrogen atom.
  F+20+25 Bohr-Stoner charts(5): Electron configurations of the elements.
  F+20+30 Wall chart or online applet of periodic table.
  F+20+35 Wall chart or online applet of the nuclides.
  F+20+40 Applet: Build an Atom
  F+20+45 Applet: Models of the Hydrogen Atom
  F+20+50 Applet: Orbits
  F+20+55 Applet: Quarks
  F+20+60 Applet: Atoms and Spectra
  F+20+65 Applet: Elements
  F+20+70 Applet: Electron Configurations
  F+20+75 Applet: Rutherford Scattering
  F+20+80 Applet: Predicted Rutherford Scattering from a Thomson Atom

Scattering (F+25)


  F+25+10 Java applets: Quantum Properties

Quantum Mechanical Barrier Penetration (F+30)


  F+30+0 Tunneling:Microwave analogy using wax prisms.
  F+30+5 Applet: Schordinger wave equation
  F+30+10 Applet: Large Hadron Rap

Elementary Particles (F+35)


  F+35+0 Fundamental particle and interaction chart.(LBL)

Cloud Chambers (F+45)


  F+45+0 Expansion cloud chamber with water and compression bulb.
  F+45+5 Wilson cloud chamber, piston compression type.
  F+45+10 Cloud chamber with dry ice and alcohol shown on TV camera.
  F+45+15 Cloud chamber shows X-rays: Same as F+5+10.

Range of Alpha Particles (F+50)


  F+50+0 Alpha range measured using small cloud chamber.

Franck-Hertz Experiment (F+55)


  F+55+0 Film: "Franck-Hertz experiment", sound, 30 min.

Special Relativity (F+60)


  F+60+0 Applet: various simulated experiments
  F+60+5 Applet: Space-Time Physics
  F+60+10 Applet: Special Relativity and clocks
  F+60+15 Applet: Light Clock

Radioactivity (F+65)


  F+65+0 Scintillation counter using Geiger tube.
  F+65+5 Geiger counter.
  F+65+10 Mechanical model of radioactive decay.
  F+65+15 Wall chart of the nuclides.
  F+65+20 Film loop: "Radioactivity", 4:00 min.
  F+65+25 Applet: Alpha Decay
  F+65+30 Applet: Beta Decay
  F+65+35 Applet: Radioactive Dating Game
  F+65+40 Applet: Decay

Accelerators (F+70)


  F+70+0 Large mechanical model of the cyclotron.
  F+70+5 Applet: Cyclotron

Fission and Fusion (F+80)


  F+80+0 Mousetrap chain reaction experiment.
  F+80+5 Model of the uranium pile.
  F+80+10 Applet: Nuclear Fission
  F+80+15 Applet: Nuclear Decay

Superconductivity (F+85)


  F+85+0 YBaCuO pellet with magnet in liquid nitrogen on TV camera.

Zeeman Effect (F+90)


  F+90+0 Magnetic field splits Cd interferometer lines on TV camera.

Laser (F+95)


  F+95+0 Working helium-neon laser in transparent housing.
  F+95+5 Applet: Laser
  F+95+10 Applet: Molecular Motor
  F+95+15 Applet: Optical Tweezers and Applications
  F+95+20 Applet: The Laser
  F+95+25 Applet: Laser Fundamentals

Fuel Cells (F+100)


  F+100+0Fuel cell car runs off hydrogen and oxygen.

Astronomy and Perception (G)


Astronomy Slides (G+0)


  G+0+0 35mm slides for astronomy.
  G+0+5 Applet: Planetary Motion
  G+0+10 Applet: Kepler's Laws Demonstrations
  G+0+15 Applet: Projectile Orbits and Satellite orbits
  G+0+20 Applet: Newton's Canon Animation
  G+0+25 Applet: SSC, Orbit
  G+0+30 Applet: Observe the change in a star's spectrum as its motion changes
  G+0+35 Applet: Kepler's Second Law
  G+0+40 Applet: Moon
  G+0+45 Applet: Kepler Motion
  G+0+50 Applet: Shoot a cannonball into orbit!

Astronomy Models (G+5)


  G+5+0 Vault of the heavens: Large lucite globe.
  G+5+5 Earth, Sun, and Mars model.
  G+5+10 Solar system model.
  G+5+15 Gravitational lens model.
  G+5+20 Applet: Cosmos Scale
  G+5+25Cut out pie pan demonstrates path when centripetal force disappears

Optical Illusions (G+55)


  G+55+0 Revolving window illusion.
  G+55+5 Rotating disk and strobe demonstration.
  G+55+10 Optical illusion posters.
  G+55+15 Phantom Bouquet: Real image from a concave mirror.
  G+55+20 Clam shell mirrors: Floating coin illusion.
  G+55+25 Indices of Refraction: glass in glycerin and phantom crystals.

Perception (G+60)


  G+60+5 Pulfrich Effect: Pendulum and polaroid experiment.
  G+60+10 Limit of resolution: Two movable pin-points of light.
  G+60+15 Limit of audibility: Set of rods that ring at different frequencies.
  G+60+20 Set of color blindness cards.
  G+60+25 Rotating disk with black and white lines makes color illusion.
  G+60+30 Purkinje effect: At low intensity, blue is more visible than red.
  G+60+35 Two sides plus red and green light gives full color illusion.
  G+60+40 Detection of the IR, visible, and UV spectra using arc lamp on TV camera.

Audio Illusions (G+50)


  G+50+5 Shepard Tones: repeating tones appear to continuously ascend or descend