Optics (E)

Diffraction (E+10)


  E+10+0 Single slit diffraction using laser beam through adjustable slit.
  E+10+5 Laser beam through sets of 1, 2, or multiple electro-formed slits.
  E+10+10 Airy's disk: Pinhole diffraction using laser beam.
  E+10+15 Diffraction about pinhead, razorblade, wood screw using laser.
  E+10+20 Microwave diffraction by a large adjustable iris.
  E+10+25 Microwave zone plates.
  E+10+30 Bragg diffraction using microwaves and steel balls in foam cube.
  E+10+40 Two points of light diffract through an iris, shown with T.V. camera.
  E+10+45 Limit of resolution: Two small lamps on adjustable slide.
  E+10+50 Poisson's spot: Interference pattern within circular shadow.
  E+10+55 Laser beam diffraction off object and being reassembled
  E+10+60 Applet: Diffraction
  E+10+65 Applet: Single-Slit Difraction

Color Perception (E+5)


  E+5+0 Standard color blindness tests and box of colored yarns.
  E+5+5 Red, green, blue light on three-sided rotatable pyramid.
  E+5+10 Newton's color disk: When rotated,appears white.
  E+5+15 Three-color projector for additive color mixing with arc lamp.
  E+5+20 Arc light spectrum recombined with concave mirror on lucite rod.
  E+5+25 Cyan, magenta, and yellow filters mix subtractively on OHP.
  E+5+30 Arc light spectrum with various filters.
  E+5+35 Rotating disk with black and white lines makes color illusion.
  E+5+40 Purkinje effect: At low intensity, blue is more visible than red.
  E+5+45 Two slides plus red and green light gives full color illusion.
  E+5+50 Applet: Color Vision
  E+5+55 Applet: Optical Illusions
  E+5+60 Applet: Additive Color

Gratings and Spectra (E+15)


  E+15+0 First and second order transmission gratings, with arc lamp.
  E+15+1 Reflection grating with arc lamp.
  E+15+5 Arc lamp spectra from NaCl, CaCl2, SrCl soaked rods.
  E+15+10 Mercury spectrum using slit and grating, includes UV lines.
  E+15+12 Wall chart of mercury spectrum.
  E+15+13 Applet: transmission and absorption spectra of all the elements
  E+15+15 Absorption spectrum of Na using arc lamp, slit and grating.
  E+15+20 Diffraction patterns of various gratings using He-Ne laser.
  E+15+25 Hand-held gratings for class to view Hg, Ne discharge tubes.
  E+15+30 Applet: Neon Lights & Other Discharge Lamps
  E+15+35 Applet: Tim's Grating

Holography (E+20)


  E+20+0 Films: "Laser light", U of Utah, sound, 38 min.; "Introduction to Holography",sound, 17 min.; "Introduction to Lasers", sound, 17 min.
  E+20+5 Transmission hologram viewed with laser light.
  E+20+6 Reflection hologram viewed with white light.

Interference (E+25)


  E+25+0 Large wood model of a double slit with hinged waves.
  E+25+5 Ripple tank with plane or spherical water waves and barriers.
  E+25+10 Microwave interference with single and double slits.
  E+25+15 Laser beam through various slit and grating combinations.
  E+25+20 Red/green/blue line source viewed with double slit paddles.
  E+25+25 Thin film interference with optical flats and sodium lamp.
  E+25+30 Newton's rings by transmission or reflection on arc bench.
  E+25+35 Same as E+25+30, using Hall's prism.
  E+25+40 Soap film interference: The soap bubble experiment on arc bench.
  E+25+42 Oil film interference on water.
  E+25+45 Thin film interference with mercury light on mica sheets.
  E+25+50 Laser projected through Fabry-Perot interferometer shows pattern.
  E+25+55 Lloyd's mirror: Laser beam interferes with reflection from glass.
  E+25+60 Michelson interferometer fringes with laser or white light.
  E+25+65 Microwave interference by multiple reflection.
  E+25+75 Applet: Michelson-Morley Experiment
  E+25+80 Applet: Interference of Waves
  E+25+85 Applet: Double slit experiment
  E+25+90 Applet: Interference of Light at a Double Slit

Lenses (E+30)


  E+30+5 Air, glass and water lenses in water tank with arc lamp.
  E+30+10 Blackboard optics: Light sources with lucite lenses.
  E+30+15 Real images: Lighted arrow image and various lenses.
  E+30+17 Real images: Lighted ‘F-object’ and an astygmatic lens.
  E+30+18 Real images: Lighted ‘F-object’ and a cylindrical lens.
  E+30+20 Cylindrical lens of lucite with words "DIOXIDE GLASS".
  E+30+25 Fresnel lenses to show.
  E+30+30 Large lens shows chromatic aberration on screen using arc lamp.
  E+30+35 Pincushion and barrel distortion of lenses using arc lamp.
  E+30+40 Cylindrical aberration: Wooden model.
  E+30+45 Astronomical telescope: Using objective and eyepiece lenses.
  E+30+50 Galilean telescope: similar to E+30+45.
  E+30+55 Compound microscope is assembled from lenses.
  E+30+60 Lantern slide projector with removable housing.
  E+30+65 Model of the eye, with near/far sight lenses, using arc lamp.
  E+30+70 Applet: Geometric Optics
  E+30+75 Applet: Thin Lens
  E+30+80 Applet: Two thin lenses
  E+30+85 Applet: Spherical Thin Lens in Gauss' Condition
  E+30+90 Applet: Auto-colimation Method
  E+30+95 Applet: Bessel Method
  E+30+100 Applet: Badal Method
  E+30+105 Applet: Vision Corrections
  E+30+110 Applet: Setting the reticulated bezel
  E+30+115 Applet: Astronomical Telescope
  E+30+120 Applet: Galileo's Telescope
  E+30+125 Applet: The Microscope

Metallic Color (E+35)


  E+35+0 Color by reflected and transmitted light, using gold leaf.

Mirrors (E+40)


  E+40+0 Arc lamp and mirror on large disk rotate showing beam angles.
  E+40+5 Blackboard optics: Light sources with plane and curved mirrors.
  E+40+10 Phantom lightbulb: Image in a plane mirror.
  E+40+15 Hand held plane mirror and right angle mirror.
  E+40+20 Variable angle mirror assembly with candle.
  E+40+21 Barbershop mirrors:Parallel mirrors with light bulb.
  E+40+25 Retrodirective reflector: Silvered right angle prism, using laser.
  E+40+30 Reflections from concave and convex mirrors with lighted arrow.
  E+40+35 Phantom bouquet: Real image from a concave mirror.
  E+40+40 Clam shell mirrors: Floating coin illusion.
  E+40+41 Concave mirrors focus candle flame on thermopile across bench. (same as 650)
  E+40+42 Light the Match (same as C+65+2).
  E+40+44 Applet: Thin Lens (converging/diverging lens/mirrors)
  E+40+46 Applet: Plane Mirror
  E+40+48 Applet: Spherical mirror: study of stigma
  E+40+50 Applet: The Newton telescope
  E+40+52 Applet: The Cassegrain telescope

Polarization and Birefringence (E+45)


  E+45+0 Two picket fence sections with slats and rope to make waves.
  E+45+5 Microwaves with grid. Transmitter and receiver are polarized.
  E+45+10 Malus experiment: Polarization by reflection off glass surface.
  E+45+15 Sunset: solution in tank scatters blue light, using arc lamp.
  E+45+15 Polarization of light by internal reflection: Fresnel rhomb.
  E+45+20 Polarization of light through a pile of glass plates, using arc lamp.
  E+45+25 Commercial Polaroid filters on an OHP.
  E+45+30 Plaster models of positive and biaxial crystals.
  E+45+35 Two tourmaline crystals act as polaroids, using arc lamp.
  E+45+40 Light through polaroid and calcite, using arc lamp.
  E+45+45 Model of a calcite crystal.
  E+45+50 Light through Nicol prism and Nicol analyzer, using arc lamp.
  E+45+55 Quartz prisms give a single and double spectrum, using arc lamp.
  E+45+60 Polarized light and stressed lucite on an OHP.
  E+45+65 Optical rotation of polarized light by sugar solution, using arc lamp.
  E+45+70 Optical rotation by sugar solution produces barber pole, using arc lamp.
  E+45+75 Mechanical model to show circular polarization; hand-cranked.
  E+45+80 Circular polarization with quarter wave plate, using arc lamp.
  E+45+85 Circular polarization of microwaves by elliptical metal tube.
  E+45+90 Circular polarization of microwaves: With reflector and grids.
  E+45+95 Polarized light thru Karo syrup shows dark bands, using arc lamp.
  E+45+100 10_ retarder plate makes dark bands in spectrum, using arc lamp.
  E+45+110 Visible nodes and antinodes in linearly birefringent plexiglass rod.
  E+45+115 Applet: Polarization of Light (3-D Version)

Prisms (E+50)


  E+50+0 Total internal reflection: 45 deg-45 deg-90 deg prism using arc lamp.
  E+50+5 Four-prisms, same index of refraction, different angles, using laser.
  E+50+10 Eight-prisms, different index of refraction, same angle, using laser.
  E+50+15 Blackboard optics: Light source and lucite prism.
  E+50+20 Refraction of white light by prism using arc lamp.
  E+50+25 Light from arc lamp enters direct view prism emerges as spectrum.
  E+50+30 Dove prism to erect projected images using arc lamp.
  E+50+35 Binoculars and Porro prisms to show.
  E+50+40 Applet: The Prism

Propagation of Light (E+55)


  E+55+0 Inverse square law: Light bulb in wire frame.
  E+55+5 He-Ne laser compared to non-coherent red light bulb.
  E+55+10 Image formed by a pinhole using three light bulbs in a box.
  E+55+15 Applet: Electric Field Lines around an Oscillating Charge
  E+55+20 Applet: Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
  E+55+25 Applet: Synchrotron Radiation
  E+55+30 Applet: Fermat's Principle
  E+55+35 Applet: Radiation Pressure

Refraction and Reflection (E+60)


  E+60+0 Displacement of a beam passing through a thick plate of glass.
  E+60+2 Indices of Refraction: glass in glycerin and phantom crystals.
  E+60+5 Total internal reflection/critical angle: Nakamura water tank.
  E+60+10 Rainbow: Refraction of white light by a liquid sphere.
  E+60+15 Light pipes and fiber optic flashlight.
  E+60+17 Water fiber optic
  E+60+20 Flexible light pipe using arc lamp.
  E+60+25 Fiber optic cable transmits picture from slide to video monitor.
  E+60+30 Microwave analogy of the light pipe using flexible metal tubing.
  E+60+35 Reflection of microwaves off an aluminum plate.
  E+60+40 Variable index of refraction: laser beam bends in water tank with sugar.
  E+60+45 Applet: Reflection of a sin wave
  E+60+50 Applet: Bending light
  E+60+55 Applet: Refraction and Reflection
  E+60+60 Applet: Specular and Diffuse Reflection
  E+60+65 Applet: Refraction of Light
  E+60+70 Applet: Reflection and Refraction
  E+60+75 Applet: Physics of Rainbows
  E+60+80 Applet: The world above the water, as seen by a fish
  E+60+85 Applet: Diopter: a study of refraction
  E+60+90 Applet: Spherical surface: a study of refraction
  E+60+95 Primary and Secondary Bow of a Rainbow
  E+60+100 Applet: Zen Photon Garden

Spectral Energy (E+65)


  E+65+0 IR source illuminates audience viewed with CCD TV camera in dark room.
  E+65+5 Crooke's radiometer with flashlight or IR source.
  E+65+10 Detection of the IR, visible, and UV spectra using arc lamp.
  E+65+12 FLIR T200 Infrared camera
  E+65+15 Concave mirrors and horn thermopile senses candle across room.
  E+65+20 Measurement of light intensity: Footcandle meter.
  E+65+25 As light bulb filament increases temp. its spectrum shifts red to blue.
  E+65+30 UV light causes mineral and fabric samples to fluoresce different colors.
  E+65+35 Applet: Blackbody Spectrum