Demos by PIRA

1 Mechanics

1A Measurement

1A50 Math Topics

1A60 Scaling

1C Motion In One Dimension

1C10 Velocity

  1C10.21Electric winch tows car at constant speed.
  1C10.27Airtrack: Glider passes "start" and "stop" gates on digital timer.

1C20 Uniform Acceleration

  1C20.10"Coin and Feather" fall in an evacuated rotatable tube.
  1C20.30Inclined airtrack with gliders and timing gates.
  1C20.31Acceleration of a steel ball down an inclined plane with metronome.

1C30 Measuring G

  1C30.10Timed free fall: Ball drops 2 meters through electronic timing gate.

1D Motion In Two Dimensions

1D10 Displacement in Two Dimensions

  1D10.20Cycloid disk draws path on chalkboard.

1D15 Velocity, Position, and Acceleration

  1D15.20Equal path lengths ball race.
  1D15.55Brachistochrone: Three balls falling along different trajectories.

1D40 Motion of the Center of Mass

1D50 Central Forces

  1D50.10A ball swung on a string held by a sleeve.
  1D50.25Conical pendulum: Similar to A+0+35 with standard weights.
  1D50.40Swing water in a bucket.
  1D50.70Rotating loop of chain rolls across bench.

1D52 Deformation by Central Forces

  1D52.10Flattening of the earth: Rotating brass hoops.
  1D52.35Mercury and colored water in a rotating glass vessel.
  1D52.40Candles rotating about an axis.

1D55 Centrifugal Escape

1D60 Projectile Motion

  1D60.10Ballistics car: Ball ejected from rolling car drops back in.
  1D60.20Dropped and shot balls hit bench simultaneously.
  1D60.30Monkey and the hunter.
  1D60.65Water projector: Adjustable angle water jet in front of grid.

1E Relative Motion

1E10 Moving Reference Frames

1E20 Rotating Reference Frames

1E30 Coriolis Effect

1F Newton's First Law

1F10 Measuring Inertia

1F20 Inertia of Rest

  1F20.10Breaking thread above and below weight.
  1F20.25Bed of nails
  1F20.30Tablecloth yanked out from under dishes.
  1F20.34Card snapped from under a weight by a leaf spring.

1F30 Inertia of Motion

1G Newton's Second Law

1G10 Force, Mass, and Acceleration

  1G10.10A falling weight accelerates a car horizontally.
  1G10.40Atwood machine: Unbalanced weights on a pulley accelerate slowly.

1G20 Accelerated Reference Frames

  1G20.60Film loop: "Inertial forces:Translational acceleration", 2:05 min.
  1G20.76Cork float accelerometer: Cork and water in sealed flask.

1G30 Complex Systems

1H Newton's Third Law

1H10 Action and Reaction

  1H10.10Two people in rolling chairs pushing and pulling

1H11 Recoil

1J Statics Of Rigid Bodies

1J10 Finding Center of Gravity

  1J10.09Rotation about the center of mass: Object to throw.
  1J10.12Irregular shapes to determine center of mass using plumb bob.
  1J10.26Center of mass of a baseball bat

1J11 Exceeding Center of Gravity

1J20 Stable, Unstable and Neutral Equilibrium

1J30 Resolution of Forces

  1J30.10Car hangs balanced by forces in mid-air over removable inclined plane.
  1J30.51Force table: Forces on a car on an adjustable inclined plane.
  1J30.53Force table: Forces on a car on a horizontal table.

1J40 Static Torque

  1J40.15Torque wrench to demonstrate.
  1J40.20A meterstick lever on a free-standing fulcrum with weights.
  1J40.25Precision lever: Balance beam on stand plus weight set.
  1J40.70Forces on crane boom measured with transducer.
  1J40.75Anatomical models: Skull, Arm, Leg

1K Applications Of Newton's Laws

1K10 Dynamic Torque

  1K10.30Static equilibrium for a rope on a spool. Same as A+55+5.
  1K10.30Rolling spool: String on spool is pulled at various angles.
  1K10.50Disk (weighted off-center) rolls up inclined plane.

1K20 Friction

  1K20.15Weighted wood block dragged horizontally by force sensor.
  1K20.35Blocks, with various surfaces slide on an inclined plane.

1K30 Pressure

1L Gravity

1L10 Universal Gravitational Constant

  1L10.10Film loop: "The Cavendish experiment", 4:25 min.
  1L10.30The Cavendish experiment: Model and actual apparatus to show.

1L20 Orbits

1M Work And Energy

1M10 Work

1M20 Simple Machines

  1M20.11Pulley sets.
  1M20.20Block and tackle: Bosun's chair.

1M30 Non-Conservative Forces

1M40 Conservation of Energy

  1M40.95The Trebuchet
  1M40.10Bowling ball pendulum swings back to nose.
  1M40.20Loop the loop: Sphere, hoop, disk rolled down a looped track.
  1M40.40Ballistic pendulum: Suspended .22 rifle fires into suspended block.
  1M40.40.22 rifle fires vertically, bullet lifts small wood cylinder.
  1M40.41Inelastic collisions: Another ballistic pendulum.
  1M40.50Maxwell's wheel: Flywheel with axle, supported on strings or stand.

1M50 Mechanical Power

1N Linear Momentum And Collisions

1N10 Impulse and Thrust

  1N10.55Waveguide pieces to show.

1N20 Conservation of Linear Momentum

  1N20.25Airtrack: Long track with two gliders coupled by a spring hoop.
  1N20.30Balls of equal and unequal mass on strings, separated by a leaf spring.

1N21 Mass and Momentum Transfer

1N22 Rockets

  1N22.20Rocket is filled with water and compressed air and launched vertically.
  1N22.30Carbon dioxide propelled rocket flies across room on wire.
  1N22.33Carbon dioxide propelled rotational device.

1N30 Collisions in One Dimension

  1N30.10Elastic collisions: Five hanging balls and two unequal hanging balls.
  1N30.15Elastic collisions: Seven steel balls roll on a wooden track.
  1N30.30Three meter airtrack with gliders that rebound elastically, or stick.

1N40 Collisions in Two Dimensions

  1N40.10Executive size pool table
  1N40.21Plastic pucks on air table.

1Q Rotational Dynamics

1Q10 Moment of Inertia

  1Q10.20Large torsion pendulum with different diameter rods.
  1Q10.40Two disks, one weighted in center and other on rim, roll down ramp.

1Q20 Rotational Energy

1Q30 Transfer of Angular Momentum

  1Q30.25Rotational inertia device: Sliding weights on rotating rod.

1Q40 Conservation of Angular Momentum

  1Q40.10Rotating chair with dumbbells or weighted bicycle wheel.
  1Q40.11Minor's apparatus: Movable discs rotated by falling weight.
  1Q40.23Mechanical governor device.
  1Q40.40Train on circular track moves one way and track moves the other.

1Q50 Gyros

  1Q50.40Large gyroscope in a suitcase.
  1Q50.54Sire's Polytrope.
  1Q50.90Maxwell's top, has adjustable center of gravity.

1Q60 Rotational Stability

  1Q60.15Large conical aluminum top.
  1Q60.50Chain lariat with hand drill or electric rotator.

1R Properties Of Matter

1R10 Hooke's Law

  1R10.10Standard pan balance with assorted weights.
  1R10.10Weight on a vertical spring with markers on stand.

1R20 Tensile and Compressive Stress

  1R20.15Young's modulus of elasticity: Weight stretches wire.
  1R20.70Prince Rupert's Drops.

1R30 Shear Stress

  1R30.20Shear: Foam block.

1R40 Coefficient of Restitution

  1R40.10Elasticity: Balls bouncing on steel or glass cylinder.

1R50 Crystal Structure

  1R50.20Wave surfaces of crystals.
  1R50.30Assorted crystals to show.

2 Fluid Mechanics

2A Surface Tension

2A10 Force of Surface Tension

  2A10.25Wire sieve boat floats on water until alcohol is added.

2A15 Minimal Surface

2A20 Capillary Action

  2A20.10Set of capillary tubes and dye on video camera.

2A30 Surface Tension Propulsion

  2A30.10Soap boat or camphor boats in one meter square pan of water.

2B Statics Of Fluids

2B20 Static Pressure

  2B20.40Interconnected set of glass vases of different shapes.
  2B20.42Pascal's vases: Water in removable vases with pressure gauge.
  2B20.60Hydraulic jack with pressure gauge, breaks 2"x 2" piece of wood.

2B30 Atmospheric Pressure

  2B30.25Collapse 1 gallon metal can with vacuum pump.
  2B30.30Magdeburg's hemispheres(cast iron) evacuated, can't be separated.
  2B30.36Suction cup holds large mass suspended from heavy glass plate.
  2B30.70Vacuum Cannon

2B35 Measuring Pressure

  2B35.15Torricelli Barometer: Column of mercury in bell jar.
  2B35.40Large model of aneroid barometer.

2B40 Density and Buoyancy

  2B40.20Archimedes' principle: Cup and plug on balance beam.
  2B40.30Cartesian divers: Pressure on cap sends divers sinking.
  2B40.40The weight of air.

2B60 Siphons, Fountains, Pumps

  2B60.60Hydraulic ram water pump, working model.


2C Dynamics Of Fluids

2C10 Flow Rate

  2C10.10Water in vertical standpipe with holes at different heights.

2C20 Forces in Moving Fluids

  2C20.10Venturi meter: Manometer tubes on tapered wind tunnel tube.
  2C20.15Glass standpipes with a constriction. Similar to C+25+10.
  2C20.20Glass aspirator: Compressed air draws colored water up glass tube.
  2C20.30Bernoulli's principle: Ball suspended in air stream.
  2C20.35Compressed air through funnel sucks in ball.
  2C20.53Two roof models, hinged, placed in wind stream.
  2C20.80Flettner rotorcar blown with fan.

2C30 Viscosity

  2C30.10Viscosity of air: One rotating disk drives another.

2C40 Turbulent and Streamline Flow

  2C40.63Video camera shows fluid flow around various objects.

2C50 Vorticies

  2C50.30A water vortex in two soda bottles joined vertically.

2C60 Non Newtonian Fluids

3 Oscillations and Waves

3A Oscillations

3A10 Pendula

  3A10.10Ball on string mounts on blackboard and pivots on lower rod.
  3A10.10Simple pendulum: Ball on a string.
  3A10.14Four pendulums on rod: Same mass, different lengths.
  3A10.17Four pendulums on rod: Same length, different masses.
  3A10.30Torsion pendulum with removable weights.

3A20 Springs & Oscillators

  3A20.10Mass on a spring.
  3A20.60Ball rolling in a spherical dish on OHP.

3A15 Physical Pendula

  3A15.20Physical pendulum: Steel bar with two pivot points.
  3A15.50"Sweet Spot": Meterstick pivot point changes with point struck.

3A40 Simple Harmonic Motion

  3A40.20Ball on turntable rotates beneath synchronized pendulum .

3A50 Damped Oscillators

  3A50.10Large damped oscillator (mass on spring) with various damping disks.

3A60 Driven Mechanical Resonance

  3A60.10Film : "Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse",silent, 4 min.
  3A60.24Driven oscillations in a multiple spring-mass system.
  3A60.40Driven harmonic oscillator: Motor driven mass on spring.
  3A60.50Unbalanced spinning wheel vibrates spring steel reeds.
  3A60.50Set of three coupled inverted pendulums on wood base.
  3A60.55Clock spring oscillator: Electrically driven and damped.
  3A60.60Inverted pendulum.

3A70 Coupled Oscillations

  3A70.10Wilberforce pendulum: Oscillates between rotation and up-down.
  3A70.20Two pendulums on a frame of flexible steel.
  3A70.25Two large pendulums coupled with spring.
  3A70.35Two balls hung on the same string, one in middle, one at the end.

3A75 Normal Modes

3A80 Lissajous Figures

  3A80.21Transparencies: Lissajous figures for OHP.
  3A80.40Lissajous figures with laser and two signal generators.
  3A80.40Lissajous Figures created with a two tuning forks with mirrors

3A95 Non-Linear Systems

  3A95.52Chaotic pendulum.

3B Wave Motion

3B10 Transverse Pulses and Waves

  3B10.10Rubber rope stretched across front of room.
  3B10.10Brass spring on white plastic sheet.
  3B10.30Torsional wave device, large or small.
  3B10.30Torison wave model.
  3B10.50Transverse wave model, hand-cranked.
  3B10.70Transverse 3-dimensional wave model, hand-cranked.

3B20 Longitudinal Pulses and Waves

  3B20.10Suspended slinky on threads for compression wave.
  3B20.35Longitudinal wave model, hand-cranked.

3B22 Standing Waves

  3B22.10Rope and strobe: Transverse standing waves, motor driven.
  3B22.60Model of longitudinal standing wave, hand-cranked.

3B25 Impedence and Dispersion

3B27 Compound Waves

3B30 Wave Properties of Sound

  3B30.01Ultrasound transducers (40 kHz) as both sources and receivers.
  3B30.20Measurement of speed of sound with microphone, speaker, oscilloscope.
  3B30.30Bell ringing in a jar evacuated with pump.
  3B30.50Breathe helium, voice pitch rises; breathe SF6, voice pitch lowers.

3B33 Phase and Group Velocity

3B35 Reflection & Refraction (Sound)

3B39 Transfer of Energy in Waves

  3B39.10Mechanical water wave model, hand-cranked.

3B40 Doppler Effect

  3B40.10Sonalert swung on the end of a string.

3B45 Shock Waves

3B50 Interference and Diffraction

  3B50.10Interference in a ripple tank uses arc lamp or incandescent light.
  3B50.12Ripple tank with plane or spherical water waves and barriers.
  3B50.55Large wood model of a double slit with hinged waves.
  3B50.55Large wood model of a double slit with hinged waves.

3B55 Interference and Diffraction Of Sound

  3B55.10Interference of sound waves from two speakers, same generator.
  3B55.40Acoustic interference with Quincke (trombone) tube and sonalert.

3B60 Beats

  3B60.10Beats with tuning forks on tuned cavities.
  3B60.20Beats from two speakers observed on an oscilloscope.

3B70 Coupled Resonators

  3B70.10One tuning fork with tuned cavity, drives another.

3C Acoustics

3C10 The Ear

  3C10.10Ear models.

3C20 Pitch

  3C20.15Galton's whistle: Compressed air whistle.
  3C20.16Steel spring pendulum, inverted, vibrates at 10 Hz.
  3C20.16Limit of audibility: Set of rods that ring at different frequencies.
  3C20.30Siren: large, electric motor driven.
  3C20.30Compressed air jet blows through spinning disk with holes.
  3C20.40Savart's wheel: Toothed wheel and cardboard or air jet.
  3C20.40Sprockets on shaft rotate against a card to make sound.

3C30 Intensity and Attenuation

3C40 Architectural Acoustics

3C50 Wave Analysis and Synthesis

  3C50.10Fourier synthesis.
  3C50.12Casio electronic synthesizer with amp and speaker.

3C55 Music Perception and the Voice

3D Instruments

3D20 Resonance in Strings

  3D20.10Sonometer: Resonant chamber with bowed strings (2).

3D22 Stringed Instruments

3D30 Resonance Cavities

  3D30.35Twirling Tube
  3D30.40Helmholtz Resonators with tuning forks and a candle
  3D30.40Helmholtz resonators drive radiometer vanes, using tuning forks.
  3D30.50Reuben's tube: Standing sound waves in flames along a large pipe.
  3D30.60Kundt's tube: Powder in tube shows standing waves.
  3D30.70Hoot Tube

3D32 Air Column Instruments

  3D32.10Set of eight organ pipes to make a major scale.
  3D32.25Tunable organ pipe.

3D40 Resonance in Plates, Bars, Solids

  3D40.20Longitudinal wave apparatus: Ball bounces off end of stroked rod.
  3D40.30Chladni's disc: Bowed disk forms patterns in sprinkled salt.
  3D40.31Chladni's Figures: Vibrational modes of a metal plate
  3D40.51Large glass bowl with ping pong balls and violin bow.
  3D40.55Beaker is broken by sound from speaker.

3D46 Tuning Forks

  3D46.15Tuning forks, various.
  3D46.40Giant tuning fork, barely audible, displayed with stroboscope.

3D50 Electronic Instruments

3E Sound Reproduction

3E10 Audio System

3E20 Loudspeakers

3E30 Microphones

3E40 Amplifiers

3E60 Recorders

3E80 Digital System

4 Thermodynamics

4A Thermal Properties Of Matter

4A10 Thermometry

  4A10.10Measurement of temperature: Various types of thermometers.
  4A10.50Liquid Crystals: sheet changes colors with body temperature.

4A20 Liquid Expansion

4A30 Solid Expansion

  4A30.10Bimetallic strip: Brass/invar strip curves when heated.
  4A30.11Bimetallic switch: Change in temperature lights cold/hot lamps.
  4A30.21Ring and ball: Ball fits through ring only after ring is heated.
  4A30.30Heated steel rod expands, raises pointer,breaks pin on cooling.
  4A30.60Heated horizontal nichrome wire stretches, weight sags.
  4A30.61Heated iron wire stretches, rotates pointer.

4A40 Properties of Materials at Low Temperature

  4A40.90Molecular models, ball and stick.

4A50 Liquid Helium

4B Heat And The First Law

4B10 Heat Capacity and Specific Heat

  4B10.10Computer demo: Nesting can calorimeter, runs 3 min.
  4B10.70Ruchardt's tube: Ball oscillates in a vertical glass tube on jug.

4B20 Convection

  4B20.10Heat water in "O" shaped tube adding a dye.
  4B20.25Cardboard strip drawn from glass tube extinguishes candle.

4B30 Conduction

  4B30.20Set of metal rods: Heat-sensitive paint changes color.
  4B30.40Copper/wood cylinder wrapped with paper over bunsen burner.

4B40 Radiation

  4B40.10Light the Match.
  4B40.11Concave mirrors focus candle flame on thermopile across bench.
  4B40.11Concave mirrors and horn thermopile senses candle across room.
  4B40.14Archimedes' principle: Aluminum and brass cylinders.
  4B40.40Computer demo: Kirchhoff's radiation law, runs 15 min.

4B50 Heat Transfer Applications

  4B50.20Boiling water in paper cup; cup does not burn.
  4B50.70Copper gauze over flame; gas burns only above gauze.

4B60 Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

  4B60.70Steam gun: Friction heated water in tube shoots a cork.

4B70 Adiabatic Processes

  4B70.10Fire syringe: paper is ignited in a cylinder with a piston.
  4B70.20Cooling by expansion: Jar with water compressed with air.
  4B70.31Piston and cylinder compress/expand air measuring temp. and pressure.

4C Change Of State

4C10 PVT Surfaces

  4C10.10P.V.T. surface model for water.
  4C10.10P.V.T. surface model for carbon dioxide.
  4C10.30Wall chart of isothermals.

4C20 Phase Changes: Liquid-Solid

  4C20.20Ice bomb: Iron sphere ruptured by freezing water.
  4C20.40Freezing liquid Nitrogen.
  4C20.45CO2 fire extinguisher: Expanding gas freezes into snow.
  4C20.53Computer demo: Heat of fusion of tin.

4C30 Phase Changes: Liquid-Gas

  4C30.15Triple Point demo: Water boils under vacuum making ice.
  4C30.25Hot water geyser, runs 5-10 min.

4C31 Cooling by Evaporation

  4C31.40Dippy bird: Large glass bird containing ether oscillates.

4C32 Dew Point and Humidity

  4C32.11Humidity: Hygrometers to show.

4C33 Vapor Pressure

4C40 Sublimation

  4C33.50Franklin's pulse glass: Two glass bulbs and tube containing ether.

4C45 Phase Changes: Solid Solid

4C50 Critical Point

  4C50.40Triple Point: Cooled water in sealed cell exhibits all three phases.

4D Kinetic Theory

4D10 Brownian Motion

  4D10.10Brownian motion: Smoke particles viewed using TV camera.
  4D10.20Brownian motion: Like C+55+0, with an aluminum disk added.

4D20 Mean Free Path

  4D20.10Crooke's radiometer with flashlight, arc lamp or IR source.
  4D20.10Crooke's radiometer with flashlight, arc lamp or IR source.
  4D20.10Crooke's radiometer with flashlight or IR source.

4D30 Kinetic Motion

  4D30.10Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.
  4D30.10Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.
  4D30.20Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.
  4D30.20Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls on OHP.
  4D30.40Stoekle's apparatus: Heated tube with mercury and glass bits.

4D40 Molecular Dimensions

4D50 Diffusion & Osmosis

  4D50.20Osmosis of helium through semi-porous cup.

4E Gas Law

4E10 Constant Pressure

  4E10.11Galileo's air thermometer forces liquid down when heated.
  4E10.11Galileo's air thermometer forces liquid down when heated.

4E20 Constant Temperature

  4E20.10Boyle's Law: At constant T, Pressure times Volume is a constant.

4E30 Constant Volume

  4E30.10Gay-Lussac's Law: At constant V, Pressure is proportional to Temperature.

4F Entropy And The Second Law

4F10 Entropy

  4F10.20Black balls and white balls in a box are shaken.
  4F10.20Ball race: Five different balls heated and placed on paraffin sheet.
  4F10.30A vortex tube seperates compressed air into jets of hot and cold air.

4F30 Heat Cycles

  4F30.10Operating Sterling cycle engine, gas powered.
  4F30.10Operating Sterling cycle engine, hot water powered.
  4F30.50Engine models: Steam, 4-cycle Otto.
  4F30.95Carnot cycle models: Piston/cylinder, PVT surface.

5 Electricity and Magnetism

5A Electrostatics

5A10 Producing Static Charge

  5A10.10Braun and Leaf electroscopes.
  5A10.20Electrophorous: Cat fur on teflon, acetate on lucite.
  5A10.35Separation of charge using electrical tape and an electroscope.

5A20 Coulomb's Law

  5A20.20Pith balls on thread, with positive and negative charged rods.
  5A20.22Attraction and repulsion of charged styrofoam balls.

5A22 Electrostatic Meters

5A30 Conductors and Insulators

5A40 Induced Charge

  5A40.16Charging an electroscope by induction.
  5A40.70Kelvin water drop electrostatic charge generator.

5A50 Electrostatic Machines

  5A50.10Wimshurst machine, large or small.
  5A50.30Van de Graaff generator.

5B Electric Fields And Potential

5B10 Electric Field

  5B10.15Electrostatic pinwheel:Van de Graaff makes pinwheel spin.
  5B30.40Electric field created by Van de Graff splits ions in flame

5B20 Gauss' Law

  5B20.10Faraday's ice pail: Charge induced on the outside of a pail.
  5B20.35Faraday cage: blocks signal from portable radio

5B30 Electrostatic Potential

5C Capacitance

5C10 Capacitors

  5C10.10Various capacitors to show.

5C20 Dielectric

  5C20.10Parallel plate capacitor with dielectric materials and electroscope.
  5C20.21Force on a dielectric in a capacitor

5C30 Energy Stored in a Capacitor

  5C30.10Various Leyden jars to show.
  5C30.30Discharging a capacitor through a lamp.
  5C30.42Series capacitor array.

5D Resistance

5D10 Resistance Characteristics

  5D10.40Resistor analog: Marbles cascading down pin board.

5D20 Resistivity and Temperature

  5D20.15Resistance thermometer: Iron coil in liquid Nitrogen and flame varies current.
  5D20.30Effect of temperature on current in carbon or tungsten filaments.

5D30 Conduction in Solutions

5D40 Conduction in Gases

  5D40.10Same as above: Secondary used for small Jacob's ladder.
  5D40.10Large Jacob's ladder.
  5D40.25Copper nail and iron nail in a lemon using a multimeter.
  5D40.42Edison effect: Electrons are cast off from hot filament.
  5D40.80X-rays ionize electrode and discharge electroscope.

5E Electromotive Force And Current

5E20 Electrolysis

  5E20.10Electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen.
  5E20.15Bubble Electrolysis.

5E30 Plating

5E40 Cells and Batteries

  5E40.20Gotham cell: Assorted metal electrodes in sulfuric acid bath.
  5E40.60Storage cell: Gotham cell is charged up and rings a bell.

5E50 Thermoelectricity

  5E50.10Thermocouple and thermopile, both make electricity from heat.
  5E50.30Thermocouple magnet: Flame with water cooling holds weight.
  5E50.30Thermocouple magnet: Flame with ice bath, holds weight.
  5E50.60Thermoelectric fan: Fan runs off of hot and cold water.
  5E50.60Peltier junction: Forward current freezes water drop, reverse boils.

5E60 Piezoelectricity

5F DC Circuits

5F10 Ohm's Law

5F15 Power and Energy

  5F15.16Watt's law: Variable resistor, glow coil, volt and amp meter.
  5F15.35High current melts the fuse wire.

5F20 Circuit Analysis

  5F20.55Resistance boards: Series, parallel, Wheatstone bridge.

5F30 RC Circuits

  5F30.12Visual charge/discharge of a capacitor through a load.
  5F30.20Computer demo: Charge/discharge of a capacitor, runs at least 1 min.
  5F30.60Oscillator made with resistor, capacitor and neon lamp.
  5F30.60Same as D+0+30 using oscilloscope to display waveform.
  5F30.60Oscillator with resistor, capacitor and neon lamp.
  5F30.60Same as D+55+12 using oscilloscope to display waveform.

5F40 Instruments

5G Magnetic Materials

5G10 Magnets

  5G10.16Suspended magnetic lodestone on string.
  5G10.20Making small magnets by breaking up a larger magnet.

5G20 Magnet Domains & Magnetization

  5G20.10Barkhausen effect: Magnet and coil with soft iron core.
  5G20.30Barkhausen effect model: Many tiny magnets on pivots on OHP.

5G30 Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism

  5G30.10Para and diamagnetic materials in magnetic field with OHP.
  5G30.10Para and diamagnetic materials in magnetic field with arc lamp.

5G40 Hysteresis

5G45 Magnetostriction and Magnetoresistance

5G50 Temperature and Magnetism

  5G50.50YBaCuO pellet with magnet in liquid nitrogen on TV camera.
  5G50.50YBaCuO pellet with magnet in liquid nitrogen on TV camera.

5H Magnetic Fields And Forces

5H10 Magnetic Fields

  5H10.11Large compass needle on stand.
  5H10.15Dip needle compass.
  5H10.25Compass needle shows field around a high current wire on bench top.
  5H10.30Iron filings and permanent magnets to show field on an OHP.

5H15 Fields and Currents

  5H15.10Iron filings around a high current vertical wire on OHP to show field.
  5H15.10Iron filings around a current carrying coil on OHP to show field.

5H20 Forces on Magnets

  5H20.20Wobbly bar: Magnets in frame balanced by repulsive forces.

5H25 Magnet/Electromagnet Interactions

  5H25.10Tangent galvanometer: Compass needle pivots in a coil.
  5H25.25Linear motor: An iron core jumps into a solenoid.

5H30 Force on Moving Charges

  5H30.10Vacuum tube with screen show cathode rays bent with a magnet.
  5H30.15Vacuum tube with screen shows cathode rays bent with a magnet.
  5H30.21E/M tube: Circular bending of an electron beam in a magnetic field.

5H40 Force on Current in Wires

  5H.40Force on current carrying wire in a magnetic field
  5H40.10Ampere's law: Currents in parallel wires attract or repel.
  5H40.30Force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field.
  5H40.70Elementary motor: Magnet, wire and battery make a simple motor.
  5H40.71Ammeter shunt: Only a small current flows to the meter.
  5H40.71Elementary motor: Bar on rails over solenoid with core.

5H50 Torques on Coils

5J Inductance

5J10 Self Inductance

  5J10.20Back EMF in a series DC motor with large flywheel.

5J20 LR Circuits

  5J20.10LR time constant: Square wave drives series LR on oscilloscope.

5J30 RLC Circuits DC

5K Electromagnetic Induction

5K10 Induced Currents and Forces

  5K10.10Elementary generator: Bar moved in magnetic field.
  5K10.20Bar magnet induces current in a coil, shown on galvanometer.
  5K10.24Demonstration of dependence of number of coils on induced flux
  5K10.60Earth inductor: Coil spun in Earth's field makes voltage.

5K20 Eddy Currents

  5K20.10Damped pendulum: Swinging metal disks damped in magnetic field.
  5K20.25Eddy currents: Neodymium Magnet Drop.
  5K20.25Eddy currents:Small magnet slowly drops between aluminum rails.
  5K20.30Jumping rings: High current AC coil causes rings to jump.
  5K20.41Levitator: Aluminum dish floats four inches off platform.

5K30 Transformers

  5K30.25Demountable transformer with many secondary coils from 10:1 to 1:46.
  5K30.40Same as above: Secondary used for spot-welding.
  5K30.40Same as above: Secondary used for induction melting.

5K40 Motors and Generators

  5K40.10Rolling bar motor: Same as D+30+ 20.
  5K40.10Elementary split-ring armature DC motor. D+15+6 as a motor.
  5K40.20Generator: Coil with DC commutator rotates between magnets.
  5K40.20Alternator: Coil with AC commutator rotates between magnets.
  5K40.80Hand-cranked DC generator powers 120 volt lamp.
  5K40.80Hand-cranked AC alternator powers 120 volt lamp.

5L AC Circuits

5L10 Impedance

  5L10.10AC dimmer: Soft iron core in coil dims lamps.

5L20 LCR Circuits AC

  5L20.10Phases of V and I in series circuit as RL shifts to RC.
  5L20.11LCR series resonance curve of V vs. F (2 - 20kHz) on an oscilloscope.
  5L20.20Resonance in a series LCR circuit using 120 v.a.c.
  5L20.21LCR paradox

5L30 Filters and Rectifiers

  5L30.10P-N Junction as a rectifier: Diode bridge rectifies AC voltage.
  5L30.10P-N Junction as a rectifier: Current flows one way.

5M Semiconductors And Tubes

5M10 Semiconductors

5M20 Tubes

  5M20.20Vacuum tube with metal cross makes shadow with cathode rays.
  5M20.20Vacuum tube with paddlewheel spins from cathode ray impact.

5N Electromagnetic Radiation

5N10 Transmission Lines and Antennas

  5N10.50Standing waves on two parallel wires, with 510 transmitter.
  5N10.6085 MHz radio transmitter, with indicating lamp on dipole antenna.
  5N10.80Plexiglas model of electromagnetic wave.

5N20 Tesla Coil

  5N20.40Large Tesla coil. 15 inch discharge.

5N30 Electromagnetic Spectrum

  5N30.10Refraction of white light by prism using arc lamp.
  5N30.303 cm. microwave transmitter and receiver.
  5N30.313 cm. microwave klystron oscillator with cavity and waveguides.

6 Optics

6A Geometrical Optics

6A01 Speed of Light

6A02 Straight Line Propagation

6A10 Reflection From Flat Surfaces

  6A10.10Blackboard optics: Light sources with plane and curved mirrors.
  6A10.10Blackboard optics: Light sources with lucite lenses.
  6A10.11Arc lamp and mirror on large disk rotate showing beam angles.
  6A10.18Reflection of microwaves off an aluminum plate.
  6A10.40Variable angle mirror assembly with candle.
  6A10.45Barbershop mirrors:Parallel mirrors with light bulb.
  6A10.60Phantom lightbulb: Image in a plane mirror.

6A20 Reflection from Curved Surfaces

  6A20.30Phantom bouquet: Real image from a concave mirror.
  6A20.30Phantom Bouquet: Real image from a concave mirror.
  6A20.35Clam shell mirrors: Floating coin illusion.
  6A20.35Clam shell mirrors: Floating coin illusion.
  6A20.40Reflections from concave and convex mirrors with lighted arrow.
  6A20.60Concave mirrors focus candle flame on thermopile across bench. (same as 650)
  6A20.60Light the Match (same as C+65+2).

6A40 Refractive Index

  6A40.40Variable index of refraction: laser beam bends in water tank with sugar.

6A42 Refraction at Flat Surfaces

  6A42.10Blackboard optics: Light source and lucite prism.

6A44 Total Internal Reflection

  6A44.20Total internal reflection/critical angle: Nakamura water tank.
  6A44.40Light pipes and fiber optic flashlight.
  6A44.40Flexible light pipe using arc lamp.
  6A44.45Water fiber optic
  6A44.68Total internal reflection: 45 deg-45 deg-90 deg prism using arc lamp.

6A46 Rainbow

  6A46.10Rainbow: Refraction of white light by a liquid sphere.

6A60 Thin Lens

  6A60.31Real images: Lighted arrow image and various lenses.

6A61 Pinhole

  6A61.20Image formed by a pinhole using three light bulbs in a box.

6A65 Thick Lens

  6A65.20Large lens shows chromatic aberration on screen using arc lamp.
  6A65.30Pincushion and barrel distortion of lenses using arc lamp.
  6A65.70Fresnel lenses to show.

6A70 Optical Instruments

  6A70.10Compound microscope is assembled from lenses.
  6A70.10Galilean telescope: similar to E+30+45.
  6A70.20Astronomical telescope: Using objective and eyepiece lenses.

6B Photometry

6B10 Luminosity

  6B10.20Inverse square law: Light bulb in wire frame.

6B30 Radation Pressure

6B40 Blackbodies

  6B40.20Box with white interior appears black from hole in the side.
  6B40.41Detection of the IR, visible, and UV spectra using arc lamp.
  6B40.41Detection of the IR, visible, and UV spectra using arc lamp on TV camera.
  6B40.55As light bulb filament increases temp. its spectrum shifts red to blue.

6C Diffraction

6C10 Diffraction Through One Slit

  6C10.10Single slit diffraction using laser beam through adjustable slit.
  6C10.15Two points of light diffract through an iris, shown with T.V. camera.
  6C10.50Microwave diffraction by a large adjustable iris.

6C20 Diffraction Around Objects

  6C20.10Poisson's spot: Interference pattern within circular shadow.
  6C20.15Diffraction about pinhead, razorblade, wood screw using laser.
  6C20.30Airy's disk: Pinhole diffraction using laser beam.
  6C20.45Microwave zone plates.

6D Interference

6D10 Interference From Two Sources

  6D10.20Microwave interference with single and double slits.

6D15 Interference of Polarized Light

6D20 Gratings

  6D20.10Laser beam through various slit and grating combinations.
  6D20.10Laser beam through sets of 1, 2, or multiple electro-formed slits.
  6D20.15Diffraction patterns of various gratings using He-Ne laser.
  6D20.20Reflection grating with arc lamp.
  6D20.20First and second order transmission gratings, with arc lamp.
  6D20.20Mercury spectrum using slit and grating, includes UV lines.

6D30 Thin Films

  6D30.10Newton's rings by transmission or reflection on arc bench.
  6D30.10Same as E+25+30, using Hall's prism.
  6D30.20Soap film interference: The soap bubble experiment on arc bench.
  6D30.30Thin film interference with optical flats and sodium lamp.
  6D30.40Thin film interference with mercury light on mica sheets.
  6D30.65Oil film interference on water.

6D40 Interferometers

  6D40.10Michelson interferometer fringes with laser or white light.
  6D40.20Microwave interference by multiple reflection.
  6D40.27Lloyd's mirror: Laser beam interferes with reflection from glass.

6F Color

6F10 Synthesis and Analysis of Color

  6F10.16Three-color projector for additive color mixing with arc lamp.
  6F10.20Cyan, magenta, and yellow filters mix subtractively on OHP.
  6F10.25Newton's color disk: When rotated,appears white.
  6F10.30Arc light spectrum recombined with concave mirror on lucite rod.
  6F10.61Color by reflected and transmitted light, using gold leaf.

6F30 Dispersion

  6F30.20Light from arc lamp enters direct view prism emerges as spectrum.

6F40 Scattering

6H Polarization

6H10 Dichroic Polarization

  6H10.20Microwaves with grid. Transmitter and receiver are polarized.
  6H10.30Two picket fence sections with slats and rope to make waves.
  6H10.80Limit of resolution: Two movable pin-points of light.

6H20 Polarization by Reflection

  6H10.10Commercial Polaroid filters on an OHP.
  6H20.20Malus experiment: Polarization by reflection off glass surface.

6H30 Circular Polarization

  6H30.30Optical rotation by sugar solution produces barber pole, using arc lamp.

6H35 Birefringence

  6H30.41Optical rotation of polarized light by sugar solution, using arc lamp.
  6H35.17Visible nodes and antinodes in linearly birefringent plexiglass rod.
  6H35.50Polarized light and stressed lucite on an OHP.
  6H35.52Quartz prisms give a single and double spectrum, using arc lamp.

6H50 Polarization by Scattering

6J The Eye

6J10 The Eye

  6J10.21Model of the eye, with near/far sight lenses, using arc lamp.
  6J10.80Limit of resolution: Two small lamps on adjustable slide.

6J11 Physiology

  6J11.10Rotating disk with black and white lines makes color illusion.
  6J11.10Rotating disk with black and white lines makes color illusion.
  6J11.52Optical illusion posters.
  6J11.65Pulfrich Effect: Pendulum and polaroid experiment.
  6J11.70Set of color blindness cards.
  6J11.70Standard color blindness tests and box of colored yarns.

6Q Modern Optics

6Q10 Holography

  6Q20.10Laser beam diffraction off object and being reassembled
  6Q10.10Transmission hologram viewed with laser light.
  6Q10.10Reflection hologram viewed with white light.

6Q20 Physical Optics

7 Modern Physics

7A Quantum Effects

7A10 Photoelectric Effect

  7A10.10UV light hits charged zinc plate and discharges electroscope.
  7A10.35Light through different filters into phototube changes current.
  7A10.40Several commercial solar cells.
  7A10.40Commercial solar cell spins propeller using small arc lamp.
  7A10.40Commercial solar cell spins propeller using halogen light source.
  7A10.43Recording modulates laser beam which hits solar cell and amplifier.

7A15 Millikan Oil Drop

7A20 Compton Effect

7A50 Wave Mechanics

  7A50.20Tunneling:Microwave analogy using wax prisms.

7A55 Particle/Wave Duality

7A60 X-ray and Electron Diffraction

  7A60.10Electron diffraction by aluminum and graphite on CRT.
  7A60.50Bragg diffraction using microwaves and steel balls in foam cube.
  7A60.50Bragg diffraction using microwaves and steel balls in foam cube.

7A70 Condensed Matter

7B Atomic Physics

7B10 Spectra

  7B10.10Hand-held gratings for class to view Hg, Ne discharge tubes.
  7B10.11Arc lamp spectra from NaCl, CaCl2, SrCl soaked rods.

7B11 Absorption

  7B11.10Absorption spectrum of Na using arc lamp, slit and grating.
  7B11.40Arc light spectrum with various filters.

7B13 Resonance Radiation

  7B13.50UV light causes mineral and fabric samples to fluoresce different colors.

7B20 Fine splitting

7B30 Ionization Potential

7B35 Electron Properties

7B50 Atomic Models

  7B50.10Mechanical models of the hydrogen atom.
  7B50.50Wall chart of periodic table.
  7B50.50Wall chart or online applet of periodic table.

7D Nuclear Physics

7D10 Radioactivity

  7D10.10Geiger counter.
  7D10.40Mechanical model of radioactive decay.

7D20 Nuclear Reactions

  7D20.10Mousetrap chain reaction experiment.

7D30 Particle Detectors

  7D30.11Scintillation counter using Geiger tube.
  7D30.50Expansion cloud chamber with water and compression bulb.
  7D30.50Wilson cloud chamber, piston compression type.
  7D30.50Alpha range measured using small cloud chamber.
  7D30.60Cloud chamber with dry ice and alcohol shown on TV camera.
  7D30.70Large mechanical model of the cyclotron.

7D40 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

7D50 Models of the Nucleus

  7D50.10Rutherford scattering model: Steel balls, launcher, and "hill".
  7D50.30"Plum pudding": Corks with magnets float in bowl/solenoid on OHP.

7E Elementary Particles

7E10 Miscellaneous

7F Relativity

7F10 Special Relativity

7F20 General Relativity

8 Astronomy

8A Planetary Astronomy

8A05 Historical Astronomy

8A10 Solar System Mechanics

  8A10.15Solar system model.

8A20 Earth Moon Mechanics

8A30 Views From Earth

8A35 Views From Earth 2

8A40 Planetary Properties: Globes, Hemispheres, & Maps

  8A40.15Vault of the heavens: Large lucite globe.

8A50 Planetary Properties 2: The Planets

8A60 Planetary Properties 3: Planetoids, Minor Objects

8A70 Planetary Properties 4: Planetary Characteristics

8A80 Planetary Properties 5: Comets And The Search For Life

8B Stellar Astronomy

8B10 The Sun

8B20 Stellar Spectra

8B30 Stellar Evolution

8B40 Black Holes

8B50 Stellar Miscellaneous

8C Cosmology

8C10 Models of The Universe

8C20 Gravitational Effects

8D Miscellaneous

8D10 Miscellaneous Astronomy

8E Astronomy Teaching Techniques

8E30 Techniques and Projects

9 Equipment

9A Support Systems / Facility

9A10 Blackboard Tools

9A20 Audio

9A30 Slide Projectors

  9A30.20Lantern slide projector with removable housing.

9A34 Film Projectors

9A36 Overhead Projectors

9A38 Video & Computer Projection

9A40 Photography

9A50 X-Y, Chart Recorders

9A60 Buildings

9A65 Museums

9A70 Resource Books

9A73 Unclassified Demonstrations

9A75 Philosophy

9A80 Films

  9A80.40Film: "Interference of photons", sound 13 min.
  9A80.40Film: "Photons", sound, 19 min..

9A85 Computer Programs

9B Electronic

9B10 Timers

9B15 Position and Velocity Detectors

9B17 Sources of Sound

9B60 Light Sources

9B18 Sound Detectors

9B20 Circuits/Components/Instruments

  9B20.30Photomultiplier tubes to show.

9B30 Function Generators

9B37 Oscilloscopes

9B40 Advanced Instruments

9B50 Power Supplies

9B61 Light Paths Made Visible

9B62 Lasers

9B65 Microwave Apparatus

9B90 Computer Interface

9C Mechanical

9C10 Motors

9C20 Pumps

9C25 Vacuum

9C30 Air Support

9C35 Ripple Tank

9C40 Other