Demos by PIRA

4A Thermal Properties Of Matter


4A10 Thermometry


  4A10.10Measurement of temperature: Various types of thermometers.
  4A10.50Liquid Crystals: sheet changes colors with body temperature.

4A20 Liquid Expansion


4A30 Solid Expansion


  4A30.10Bimetallic strip: Brass/invar strip curves when heated.
  4A30.11Bimetallic switch: Change in temperature lights cold/hot lamps.
  4A30.21Ring and ball: Ball fits through ring only after ring is heated.
  4A30.30Heated steel rod expands, raises pointer,breaks pin on cooling.
  4A30.60Heated horizontal nichrome wire stretches, weight sags.
  4A30.61Heated iron wire stretches, rotates pointer.

4A40 Properties of Materials at Low Temperature


  4A40.90Molecular models, ball and stick.

4A50 Liquid Helium


4B Heat And The First Law


4B10 Heat Capacity and Specific Heat


  4B10.10Computer demo: Nesting can calorimeter, runs 3 min.
  4B10.70Ruchardt's tube: Ball oscillates in a vertical glass tube on jug.

4B20 Convection


  4B20.10Heat water in "O" shaped tube adding a dye.
  4B20.25Cardboard strip drawn from glass tube extinguishes candle.

4B30 Conduction


  4B30.20Set of metal rods: Heat-sensitive paint changes color.
  4B30.40Copper/wood cylinder wrapped with paper over bunsen burner.

4B40 Radiation


  4B40.10Light the Match.
  4B40.11Concave mirrors focus candle flame on thermopile across bench.
  4B40.11Concave mirrors and horn thermopile senses candle across room.
  4B40.14Archimedes' principle: Aluminum and brass cylinders.
  4B40.40Computer demo: Kirchhoff's radiation law, runs 15 min.

4B50 Heat Transfer Applications


  4B50.20Boiling water in paper cup; cup does not burn.
  4B50.70Copper gauze over flame; gas burns only above gauze.

4B60 Mechanical Equivalent of Heat


  4B60.70Steam gun: Friction heated water in tube shoots a cork.

4B70 Adiabatic Processes


  4B70.10Fire syringe: paper is ignited in a cylinder with a piston.
  4B70.20Cooling by expansion: Jar with water compressed with air.
  4B70.31Piston and cylinder compress/expand air measuring temp. and pressure.

4C Change Of State


4C10 PVT Surfaces


  4C10.10P.V.T. surface model for water.
  4C10.10P.V.T. surface model for carbon dioxide.
  4C10.30Wall chart of isothermals.

4C20 Phase Changes: Liquid-Solid


  4C20.20Ice bomb: Iron sphere ruptured by freezing water.
  4C20.40Freezing liquid Nitrogen.
  4C20.45CO2 fire extinguisher: Expanding gas freezes into snow.
  4C20.53Computer demo: Heat of fusion of tin.

4C30 Phase Changes: Liquid-Gas


  4C30.15Triple Point demo: Water boils under vacuum making ice.
  4C30.25Hot water geyser, runs 5-10 min.

4C31 Cooling by Evaporation


  4C31.40Dippy bird: Large glass bird containing ether oscillates.

4C32 Dew Point and Humidity


  4C32.11Humidity: Hygrometers to show.

4C33 Vapor Pressure


4C40 Sublimation


  4C33.50Franklin's pulse glass: Two glass bulbs and tube containing ether.

4C45 Phase Changes: Solid Solid


4C50 Critical Point


  4C50.40Triple Point: Cooled water in sealed cell exhibits all three phases.

4D Kinetic Theory


4D10 Brownian Motion


  4D10.10Brownian motion: Smoke particles viewed using TV camera.
  4D10.20Brownian motion: Like C+55+0, with an aluminum disk added.

4D20 Mean Free Path


  4D20.10Crooke's radiometer with flashlight, arc lamp or IR source.
  4D20.10Crooke's radiometer with flashlight, arc lamp or IR source.
  4D20.10Crooke's radiometer with flashlight or IR source.

4D30 Kinetic Motion


  4D30.10Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.
  4D30.10Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.
  4D30.20Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.
  4D30.20Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls on OHP.
  4D30.40Stoekle's apparatus: Heated tube with mercury and glass bits.

4D40 Molecular Dimensions


4D50 Diffusion & Osmosis


  4D50.20Osmosis of helium through semi-porous cup.

4E Gas Law


4E10 Constant Pressure


  4E10.11Galileo's air thermometer forces liquid down when heated.
  4E10.11Galileo's air thermometer forces liquid down when heated.

4E20 Constant Temperature


  4E20.10Boyle's Law: At constant T, Pressure times Volume is a constant.

4E30 Constant Volume


  4E30.10Gay-Lussac's Law: At constant V, Pressure is proportional to Temperature.

4F Entropy And The Second Law


4F10 Entropy


  4F10.20Black balls and white balls in a box are shaken.
  4F10.20Ball race: Five different balls heated and placed on paraffin sheet.
  4F10.30A vortex tube seperates compressed air into jets of hot and cold air.

4F30 Heat Cycles


  4F30.10Operating Sterling cycle engine, gas powered.
  4F30.10Operating Sterling cycle engine, hot water powered.
  4F30.50Engine models: Steam, 4-cycle Otto.
  4F30.95Carnot cycle models: Piston/cylinder, PVT surface.